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The Nature of Memory
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  1. The Nature of Memory • Memory: internal record or representation of some prior event or experience • Memory is also aconstructive process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Enhancing Memory

  2. The Nature of Memory—Four Memory Models ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  3. The Nature of Memory—Four Memory Models (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  4. 1. Information Processing Approach: memory is a process analogous to a computer, which encodes, stores, and retrieves information The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  5. 2. Parallel Distributed Processing Model: memory is distributed across a network of interconnected units that work simultaneously (in a parallel fashion) to process information The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Cont.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  6. The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Continued) 3.Levels of Processing Approach: memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered 4.Traditional Three-Stage Memory Model: memory requires three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  7. Diagram of Three-Stage Memory Model ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Enhancing Memory

  8. Summary of three stages • SR: Duration? Representation? Capacity? Loss? • STS: Duration? Representation? Capacity? Loss? • LTM: Duration? Representation? Capacity? Loss? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  9. The Nature of Memory—Description of Three Stage Memory Model • Sensory Memory: briefly preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information • Sensory memory has a large capacity but information only lasts a few seconds. • Selected information is sent on to short-term memory. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  10. When flashed an arrangement of 12 letters for 1/20 of a second, most people can only recall 4 or 5. Sperling proved all 12 letters were available in sensory memory if they can be attended to quickly. Sperling’s Experiment with Sensory Memory ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  11. The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Cont.) • Short-Term Memory (STM): temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM) • STM can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten. • STM capacity can be increased with chunking. STM duration improves withmaintenance rehearsal. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  12. Types of Rehearsal • Maintenance vs. Elaborative • Repetition vs. Meaningful associations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  13. STM, also called working memory, is much more than just a passive, temporary holding area. • Three parts of working memory: • visuospatial sketchpad • central executive • phonological loop ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  14. Long-Term Memory (LTM): relatively permanent memory storage with a virtually limitless capacity The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  15. Types of Long-Term Memories ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  16. Improving Long-Term Memory (LTM) • LTM can be improved with: • Organization • Elaborative Rehearsal • Retrieval Cues • Recognition • Recall ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  17. Semantic nature of LTM • Who was president in 1940? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  18. An Example of Using Hierarchies as an Organizational Tool ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  19. Research shows people are better at recognizing photos of previous high school classmates than recalling their names. An Example of Recognition Vs. Recall ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  20. Forgetting: How Quickly Do We Forget? • Ebbinghaus found: • forgetting occurs most rapidly immediately after learning. • relearning takes less time than initial learning. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  21. Decay Interference Motivated Forgetting Encoding Failure Retrieval Failure Why Do We Forget? Five Key Theories ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  22. Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued) 1. Decay Theory: memory degrades with time 2. Interference Theory: one memory competes (interferes) with another • RetroactiveInterference (new information interferes with old) • Proactive Interference (old information interferes with new) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  23. Forgetting: Interference vs. Decay • Key Study: Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924), subjects learn list of words either before sleeping or after waking. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  24. Two Forms of Interference ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  25. Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued) 3.Motivated Forgetting: motivation to forget unpleasant, painful, threatening, or embarrassing memories 4. Encoding Failure: information in STM is not encoded in LTM 5. Retrieval Failure: memories stored in LTM are momentarily inaccessible (tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  26. A Test for Encoding: Can You Identify the Actual Penny? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  27. Serial Position Effect: remembering material at the beginning and end of the list better than material in the middle Overcoming Problems with Forgetting ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  28. Overcoming Problems with Forgetting(Continued) • Source Amnesia: forgetting the true source of a memory • Sleeper Effect: information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because source is forgotten • Spacing of Practice: distributed practice is better than massed practice ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  29. Pause and Reflect: Check & Review • You remember material from the first and last of the chapter better than material in the middle. This is a good example of the _____ effect. • The _____ of forgetting best explains why you forgot the name of a previous employer who gave you a bad performance evaluation. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  30. Biological Bases of Memory • Biological changes in neurons facilitate memory through long-term potentiation (LTP),which happens in at least two ways: • repeated stimulation of a synapse strengthens the synapse, and • neuron’s ability to release its neurotransmitters is increased or decreased. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  31. Hormones also affect memory (e.g., flashbulb memories--vivid and lasting images are associated with surprising or strongly emotional events). Biological Bases of Memory (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  32. Memory tends to be localized and distributed throughout the brain--not just the cortex. Where Are Memories Located? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  33. Amnesia: memory loss from brain injury or trauma Retrograde amnesia: old memories lost Anterograde amnesia: new memories lost Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  34. Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease (Continued) • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  35. Memory and the Criminal Justice System • Two memory problems with profound legal implications: • Eyewitness Testimony-- very persuasive but can be flawed • Repressed Memories— considerabledebate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  36. Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory • Why do we distort our memories? • Need to maintain logic and consistency. • Need to shape and construct our memories because it is more efficient to do so. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  37. Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology? • Psychological research conducts basic research, which helps us describe and understand our own and others’ memory processes. This basic research also leads to applied research that shows us how to improve our sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Enhancing Memory

  38. Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued) • Eight Tips for Memory Improvement: 1.Pay attention and reduce interference 2. Use rehearsal techniques 3. Organization 4. Counteract serial position effect 5. Time management ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  39. Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued) 6. Use encoding specificity principle 7. Employ self-monitoring and overlearning 8. Use mnemonic devices (e.g., method of loci, peg-word, substitute word, word associations) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  40. Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking • Which of the “Eight Tips for Memory Improvement” do you need to use to improve your academic performance? Which of the eight tips would your best friend suggest that you need to improve for your everyday interactions? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  41. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 7: Memory Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)