The United States 1800-1860 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The United States 1800-1860

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  1. The United States 1800-1860 Manifest Destiny Chapter 3

  2. Chapter 3 Section 1 • Thomas Jefferson believed in a more simple form of government • Smaller, with less impact on lives • Importance of agriculture and the South • Marbury v. Madison (1803) • First time “Judicial Review” used • Strengthened the Supreme Court

  3. Louisiana Purchase (1803) James Monroe sent to France to purchase New Orleans Bought it all for $15 million

  4. Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) To find out what we bought and a water route to Pacific

  5. War of 1812 • War bet. Britain and France • British interference with American shipping and trade • Impressments • Encouraged native Americans to resist resettlement

  6. War Declared June 1812 • U.S. Invaded Canada • Burned British buildings • Turned back • British invaded Washington – burned the capitol

  7. Sea blockade by England

  8. Star Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key Attack on Fort McHenry (1814)

  9. Treaty of Ghent (December 24, 1814) • Battle of New Orleans occurred after Treaty signed • General Andrew Jackson (old Hickory)

  10. James Monroe elected in 1816 • Secretary of State John Adams negotiated joint ownership of the Oregon Territory with Britain • Set western border with Spain and transferred Florida to the US

  11. Monroe Doctrine (1823) No further European interference in western hemisphere

  12. Age of JacksonChapter 3 Section 2 • Regional differences begin to matter • North – industrial • South – agriculture • Efforts to unite on issues break on these differences • Tariffs • Admission of new states

  13. Missouri Compromise • Missouri to be admitted as a slave state – Maine as a free state • Line between N and S set • Free states above line

  14. Jacksonian issues • Nullification crisis • John C. Calhoun (S. Carolina) • States could nullify (ignore or declare void) laws they believed to be unconstitutional • States Rights v Federal Government

  15. Indian Removal Act (1830) • Forced treaties that moved tribes west • Make room for white settlements • Supreme Court sides with Indians but Jackson ignores ruling and moves them anyway • 100,000 from five tribes moved into Oklahoma

  16. “Trail of Tears” 15,000 Cherokees moved from Georgia (gold)

  17. 116 day march in the winter of 1838

  18. One of every four died along the way

  19. Chapter 3 Section 3 • Manifest Destiny • Ordained (heavenly mandate) to expand to the Pacific and into land held by Mexico • Land available for the taking • Farmers • Mormons to escape religious persecution in New York - Utah

  20. Republic of Texas • 1835-36 Texicans defeated Santa Anna • Independent Republic for several years • 1845 entered as a state • President Polk attempted to buy CA and New Mexico – refused $30M offer

  21. Polk sends troops to Texas border -“fired” upon in 1846 • Mexican War ended in 1848 • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • CA and NM became US territory • 1853 US bought rest of NM and Arizona for $10M

  22. The 49-ers • Gold rush of 1849 • Hundreds of thousands of new inhabitants • 150,000 Native Americans to 35,000 by 1860

  23. Reform and ChangeChapter 3 Section 5 • The Second Great Awakening (1790-1830) • Revival meetings – impassioned preaching to bring people back to religion

  24. Faith mattered more than social status Spurred Social Reforms & Redefined the Idea of Equality Education Temperance Women’s Rights Penal Reform Abolitionism

  25. Harriet Beecher Stowe • Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  26. Women had few educational opportunities • Even limited at elementary level • 1833 – first coed at Oberlin College • 1837 – Mount Holyoke Female Seminary • African American women had no options

  27. <Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone • Leading women’s rights movement • demanding the right to vote and hold office

  28. Seneca Falls, 1848