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Ancient Nubia. Which Nile culture developed first?. Egypt. Nubia. Nubia. However, Egypt developed more quickly!. Nubia. Located in present day Sudan; south of Egypt Called Kingdom of Kush. Nubia. Nubia was more fertile in ancient times Silt from flooding (Nile)

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Nubia

Nubia

However, Egypt developed more quickly!


Nubia1
Nubia

  • Located in present day Sudan; south of Egypt

  • Called Kingdom of Kush


Nubia2
Nubia

  • Nubia was more fertile in ancient times

  • Silt from flooding (Nile)

  • Rich in minerals – gold, copper, stone


Nubian civilization
Nubian Civilization

  • Similar to Egypt

  • Farming developed about 3500 B.C.

  • Some farmers grew wealthy; became leaders


Nubian civilization1
Nubian Civilization

  • 2000 B.C. – leader united the region & became king

  • Kingdom – Kush

  • 1st capital – Kerma (south of 3rd cataract) – natural barrier


Kushite society
Kushite society

  • Began evolving

  • Influenced by people in the south and Egypt in the North


Nubia s wealth
Nubia’s Wealth

  • Nubian kings gained wealth from trade

  • Nubians raised cattle and hunted for food because they lived in a rocky region


Conflict arises
Conflict Arises

  • Peaceful at times

  • Egypt / Nubia border shifted many times

  • Was influenced by Egypt because of close contact, but did develop its own culture

  • Kush grew wealthy and strong

  • Egyptians feared the growth of Kush



Egypt vs nubia
Egypt VS Nubia Lower Nubia

  • Egypt sought to control the mines and trade in Nubia

  • In times of strong governments (pharaohs) in Egypt, Egypt pushed into Nubia; weak governments were driven out of Nubia


Egypt vs nubia1
Egypt VS Nubia Lower Nubia

  • Egypt’s New Kingdom

  • 1500 B.C. - Thutmose I sent army to conquer Kush

  • Conquered Nubia north of 5th cataract

  • Destroyed Kerma

  • Nubians enslaved

  • Forced to make payments of gold

  • Built Egyptian temples


Egyptian control
Egyptian Control Lower Nubia

  • Controlled Kush 450 years

  • Egyptians settled in Kush

  • Egyptian language

  • Egyptian names, clothing, religious practices


King s sons of kush
King’s Sons of Kush Lower Nubia

  • Pharaoh’s officials

  • Kept watch over local rulers

  • Sent sons of rulers to Egypt as hostages



Egypt s new kingdom ends
Egypt’s New Kingdom Ends Lower Nubia

  • Mid 1000s

  • Egypt’s pharaoh lost power

  • Kushite leaders regained control of Kush

  • Kush became independent once again

  • No history of Kush for next 200 years


Kush regains power
Kush Lower NubiaRegains Power

  • 850 B.C.

  • Kushitesbuild new capital in Napata (south of Kerma)


Kush invades egypt
Kush Lower NubiaInvades Egypt

  • 700s B.C.

  • King Kashta attacked Egypt

  • 751 B.C. – conquered Lower Egypt


Kushite rule
Kushite Lower Nubia Rule

  • Piankhi (son of Kashta) – 751-716 B.C.

  • Continued to attack Egypt

  • Believed gods wanted him to rule Egypt – fueled passion for war

  • Controlled from Delta to Kushite capital


Egypt under nubian rule
Egypt under Nubian rule Lower Nubia

  • Nubians allowed Egyptians to keep their own culture

  • Nubians helped to restore forgotten or lost parts of their culture


Shabaka
Shabaka Lower Nubia

  • Brother of Piankhi

  • Declared himself Pharaoh

  • Began 25th Dynasty

  • Believed they were heirs of great Egyptian pharaoh’s of the past


Shabaka1
Shabaka Lower Nubia

  • Restored Egyptian culture and infrastructure

  • Tried to restore old traditions and cultural practices

  • Worked to restore Egyptian writing

  • Restored temples


End of nubian rule
End of Nubian Rule Lower Nubia

  • Nubians only ruled Egypt 40-60 years

  • 670s B.C. – Assyrians invaded Egypt

  • in 10 years Kushites had been back into Nubia


Kushite success
Kushite Lower Nubia Success

  • Became farmers and traders

  • Prosperous and powerful


Kushite iron industry
Kushite Lower Nubia Iron Industry

  • Meroe – new capital and industrial center

  • Location on Nile aided growth

  • Large deposits of ….

    -gold

    -forests – ebony & other wood

    -iron ore


Kushite trade
Kushite Lower Nubia Trade

  • Trade network – system of people in different lands who trade goods

  • Kush to Egyptians; Egyptians to Greeks; then to entire Mediterranean region and Red Sea ports


Kush exports and imports
Kush Exports and Imports Lower Nubia

  • Exports – items sent to other places – gold, pottery, iron tools and weapons, slaves, ivory

  • Imports – goods brought in from other countries – fine jewelry and luxury items


Cultural diffusion
Cultural Diffusion Lower Nubia

  • Trade led to combined cultures of Kushites and others

  • Most obvious – Egypt – borrowed many aspects of Egyptian culture


Unique kushite culture
Unique Lower NubiaKushite Culture

  • Houses

  • Daily life

  • Worshipped some of own gods

  • Own written language – Meroitic (we still can’t decode)

  • Different view on women


Kushite women
Kushite Lower Nubia Women

  • Expected to be active

  • Some rose to positions of power

  • Co-rulers

  • Queens

  • Queen Shankhdakheto – 1st woman to rule Kush (170 B.C. – 150 B.C.)


Decline of kush
Decline of Kush Lower Nubia

  • Problems within the kingdom weakened the economy

  • Overgrazed the land (cattle); led to soil blown away by wind; less farming

  • Cut down too many trees to fuel furnaces; furnaces shut down; fewer weapons and tools to trade


Decline of kush1
Decline of Kush Lower Nubia

  • Weakened by loss of trade

  • Foreigners set up new trade routes that bypassed Kush

  • Aksum


Aksum
Aksum Lower Nubia

  • Located on Red Sea

  • Present day Ethiopia and Eritrea

  • Grew wealthy quickly (200 years)

  • A.D. 350 Emperor Ezana took advantage of Kush’s loss of wealth and military power – destroyed Kushite capital (Meroe)


Aksum1
Aksum Lower Nubia

  • Late A. D. 300s Aksum became Christian

  • 200 years later converted Nubians

  • Influence of Kush disappeared


Egypt and nubia had lost their power and never regained full strength
Egypt and Lower NubiaNubia had lost their power and NEVER regained full strength!


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