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Introduction to Physical ScienceMonday, Wednesday, ThursdayTom Burbinetomburbine@astro.umass.edu
Schedule • December 1 - • December 2 – Quiz #8 • December 6 - • December 7 (1:30 pm) (optional) – Field Trip to look at rocks • Will replace your lowest Lab score • December 8 - • December 9 – Presentations • 5-10 minutes • On how you would teach something you learned in class to your students • December 13 – Final • Covers everything from midterm • Can bring in one sheet of paper with anything you wanted written on it • Also, your mineral identification sheets
Quiz #8 • Geologic Time • Earth’s Interior • Plate tectonics • Moon
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap010218.html • The Moon's orbital period is 27.322 days • Rotation period and orbital period are the same • This means we keep on seeing the same side of the Moon
Phases of Moon http://www.moonphases.info/images/moon-phases-diagram.gif
Luna 2 • The first manmade object to land on the Moon was Luna 2 (Soviet Union) in 1959 • The first photographs of the far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3 (Soviet Union) that same year
Houston, TexasSeptember 12, 1962 • We choose to go to the Moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not only because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.
Regolith – Lunar soil No moisture or organic component compared to terrestrial soil
Who was the 1st person to walk on the Moon • Neil Armstrong • Apollo 11
Who was the 2nd person to walk on the Moon • Buzz Aldrin • Apollo 11
Moon • 30,000 craters having a diameter of at least 1 kilometers • Large craters are named after famous deceased scientists, scholars, artists
The dark and relatively featureless lunar plains are called maria, Latin for seas, since they were believed by ancient astronomers to be water-filled seas. • They are actually vast ancient basaltic lava flows that filled the basins of large impact craters.
Mare Lunar Highlands http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon/howdoweknow.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lunar_Ferroan_Anorthosite_60025.jpg
Highlands – contain Al-rich material • Plagioclase feldspar - CaAl2Si2O8 • Mare – contain Fe-rich material – basaltic eruptions • Olivine - (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 • Pyroxene – (Mg,Fe)SiO3 • Ilmenite - FeTiO3
Other features on Moon • Rille - long, narrow depressions in the lunar surface that resemble channels. • Floor of Gassendi crater • Leading theories for rille formation include collapsed lava tubes and tectonic extension. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:AS16-120-19295.jpg
Other features on Moon • Scarp – steep slope or cliff • The Altai Scarp, which is the rim of the 860 km wide Nectaris impact basin, is nearly 500 km long and 3 to 4 km high. http://www.lpod.org/?m=20060517
Crater Rays • Fragmental material ejected from primary and secondary craters during impact events
Crater Rays http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:AS11-42-6285.jpg
Copernicus 93 km wide Tycho 85 km wide http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0503/moon8_mandel.jpg
Only 2.5% of the surface of the far side is covered by mare, compared to 31.2% on the near side. • The likely explanation is that the far side crust is thicker, making it harder for molten material from the interior to flow to the surface and form the smooth maria.
A total of 382 kg of rock samples were returned to the Earth by the Apollo and Luna programs. • Apollo - 381.69 kg • Luna – 300 g Apollo 16 Luna 16 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Apollo_16_LM.jpg http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=1970-072A
Apollo 15 sample “Genesis Rock” Very ancient sample 4 billion years old http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Apollo_15_Genesis_Rock.jpg
Lunar Meteorites • ~70 known as of today http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon_meteorites.html
Fe-rich Al-rich http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon_meteorites.html
Need to account for these things • The Moon's low density (3.3 g/cc) shows that it does not have a substantial iron core like the Earth does. • Moon rocks contain few volatile substances (e.g. water), which implies extra baking of the lunar surface relative to that of Earth. • The relative abundance of oxygen isotopes on Earth and on the Moon are identical, which suggests that the Earth and Moon formed at the same distance from the Sun.
Atmosphere • Not much of an atmosphere since the Moon’s gravity is so small