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IS 425 PowerPoint Presentation

IS 425

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IS 425

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  1. IS 425 Enterprise Information ILECTURE 2 Autumn 2004-2005 Session 2

  2. Agenda • Homework • Individual Paper Assignment • Review Value Chain • Review Information Organizing Mechanisms • Architecture versus Infrastructure • Information Architecture Model and Types • Information Needs with Others • Information Systems & People Supported • Organizational Structures • Information Needs Within • Next week Session 2

  3. Homework • What are the top HOT TOPICS? • Form teams • Each team justifies their list of the 3 top HOT TOPICS using facts/information • What facts are more persuasive? Session 2

  4. Individual Paper Assignment • Due Week 5 • An IS Competency Analysis • Specifications & Grading Criteria Session 2

  5. Value Chain review Session 2

  6. Review Information Organizing Mechanisms • The Fundamentals • DATA = elementary descriptions or FACTS • INFORMATION = DATA + meaning • KNOWLEDGE = INFORMATION + CONTEXT where context conveys understanding, experience, accumulated learning and experience Session 2

  7. Information Technology Challenges • Integrating Changing Technology Platforms Administrative Framework Primary Target Justification/ Purpose Application Challenges Regulated Monopoly Productivity/ Efficiency Era I Organization ? ? Free Market Individual/Group Efficiency Era II ? ? Individual Enterprise and Industry Integration Value Creation Era III Collaborative ? ? Session 2

  8. Review Information Organizing Mechanisms continued Information System Types • By Functional Area • Accounting Information System • Finance Information System • Marketing Information System • By Organizational Structure • Departmental Information System • Enterprise Information System • Inter-Organizational Information System Session 2

  9. Review Information Organizing Mechanisms continued Session 2

  10. Interrelated Support Systems – The TPS collects info thatis used to build the MIS and EIS. Info from other sources also goes into the EIS Review Information Organizing Mechanisms continued Session 2

  11. Turning our attention to Architecture/infrastructure Session 2

  12. Architecture versus Infrastructure • Information Architecture: • High level map or plan of the information requirements in an organization. • To conceptualize the information requirements of the core business of the organization, including how the requirements are to be met. • Information Infrastructure: • Consist of the physical facilities, services, and management that support all computing resources in an organization. • How specific computers, networks, databases, and other facilities are arranged and how they are connected, operated, and managed. Session 2

  13. Architecture versus Infrastructure • Architecture = “A plan of the information requirements in an organization” • A guide for current operations • A blueprint for future directions • Infrastructure = the realization of the architecture consisting of 5 components: • Computer hardware • General-purpose software • Networks and communication facilities • Databases • Information management personnel • What is not a component? Session 2

  14. Schematic View of Infrastructure & Applications Inside matrix includes the specific applications & s/w typesOutside ring is the infrastructure Session 2

  15. An Information Architecture Model • Between centralized and decentralized whereBusiness/Data/Communications central base with decentralized strategic/managerial/operational applications. Session 2

  16. General Types of Information Architecture • Mainframe environment • One computer with dumb terminals • PC environment • Only PCs connected by networks • Networked (distributed) Environment • 2 or more computers linked • Client/Server is dominant Session 2

  17. Business Pressures create pressures on Organizations Organizations respond to pressures with IT supported activities Information Needs with Others Session 2

  18. These pressures from market, technology and society demand responses from organizations. These pressures either alone or with one another can impact an organization’s value chain’s viability. Information Needs with Others The major business pressures Session 2

  19. These 5 organizational components maintain an equilibrium until business pressures force a realignment of the 5 for a response. Information Needs with Others Framework for organizational and societal impacts of information Session 2

  20. Critical Response Activities -5 major groups --Strategic Systemsgives advantage over competitionvery rarely lasts --Continuous Improvements --Business Alliances --ECommerce --BPRbusiness process reengineering Information Needs with Others Session 2

  21. Information Systems & People Supported Session 2

  22. Organizational Structures • Organizations – • By Function where people are grouped around the resources they commonly use • Most small and mid-sized firms • By Divisions where large organizations are subdivided into smaller functional units • Most large firms Session 2

  23. Information Needs Within • When organized around functions (traditional organization form), each function maintains its own information leading to each function having its own information systems • Information that must be shared is “shipped” from one function to the next“following the ‘paper’ trail” • Early legacy systems automated the existing information flows between functions Session 2

  24. Information Needs Within • Later, the need to update various functions with the same facts led to: • A common database • Decentralized processing simultaneously at several locations • A process orientation from the functional orientation, i.e., reorienting people’s work to the accomplishing outcomes • Streamlining work so it always is rationalized in terms of outcomes • Can Build a unique system • That is a BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR) • Or Can Buy a system • That is an ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) Session 2

  25. Next Week • Software Methods/Software Development • Security Issues • Homework – Readings from course home page Session 2