Egypt and the arab israeli conflict
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Egypt and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Wars between states. The Basic Situation. Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip and shared a long border with Israel Jordan integrated the West Bank into itself Syria shared a short but poorly defined border with Israel

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The basic situation
The Basic Situation

  • Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip and shared a long border with Israel

  • Jordan integrated the West Bank into itself

  • Syria shared a short but poorly defined border with Israel

  • Egypt is the “hegemonic” regional power threatened (in different ways) by Israel, Syria, and Saudi Arabia


1952 revolution
1952 Revolution

  • LAND REFORM IN SEPTEMBER 1952 AND ARMY’S PROMISE TO LIQUIDATE FEUDALISM AND COLONIALISM

  • COLLAPSE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MONARCHY AND CLOSEST ALLY OF BRITAIN IN THE REGION


Nasser searches for independence
Nasser Searches for independence

  • 1954 – Nasser at Bandung

  • 1955 – Czech arms deal; rejection of the Baghdad Pact

  • 1956 – Nationalization of Suez Canal


1956 war
1956 War

  • October 29 – Israel invades Sinai

  • November 5 – Anglo-French invasion

  • December 22 – Anglo-French withdrawal

  • Nasser wins a dramatic political victory despite military defeat


Republicanism victorious
Republicanism victorious

  • February 1958 – creation of United Arab Republic

  • July 1958 – the Iraqi revolution

  • July 1961 – Egypt moves further toward socialism



And the turning point
And the turning point

  • September 1961 – Syria withdraws from UAR

  • 1962-1967 – the “Arab Cold War”

  • 1962 – the republican coup in Yemen and “Nasser’s Vietnam”


The problem for nasser
The Problem for Nasser

  • Challenges to his leadership

    • Fatah incursions into Israel

    • Syrian claims to revolutionary leadership

    • The domestic threat of the Muslim Brothers

    • Saudi opposition to Arab nationalism

      • Islamic or Arab solidarity?

      • Oil as a factor in international politics


Throwing the dice 1967
Throwing the Dice - 1967

  • May 14 1967 – Egyptian troops into Sinai

  • May 16 – Request for UNEF to leave

  • May 21 – Closure of Straits of Tiran to Israeli-bound shipping

  • May 30 – King Husayn of Jordan signs a joint defense pact


Egypt and the arab israeli conflict
War

  • Israeli war strategy makes waiting impossible

  • Fighting broke out with Israeli attacks on Egyptian air bases, obliterating the airforce

  • With no air cover the Egyptian ground forces—mainly conscripts—were destroyed

  • Within 6 days Israel had occupied Sinai, the West Bank, and Golan


Outcome
Outcome

  • Egypt now had renewed foreign occupation

  • Jordan had lost its most populous and productive region

  • Israel emerged as the regional strategic power

  • Israel now controlled all of the territory of Mandatory Palestine


Collapse of the arab states
Collapse of the Arab states

  • Nasser briefly resigns

  • A new leader emerges in Damascus

  • The Khartoum declaration

    • No negotiation

    • No withdrawal without recognition of Palestinians

    • Resolution of Egyptian-Saudi conflicts on Saudi terms


Space for the plo
Space for the PLO

  • The military defeat of the Arab states opens the door to the PLO

  • Strengthens Palestinian resolve not to trust the Arab states

  • The Palestinian issue becomes a more important symbol for Arab states even as they realize how dangerous it is