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TRAINING ADAPTATIONS (CH11). Training principle of ADAPTATION. ALSO REFERRED TO AS THE SAID PRINCIPLE S = Specific A = Adaptation I = Imposed D = Demands It states that the physical activity we are involved in encourages our bodies to adapt in specific

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training principle of adaptation
Training principle of ADAPTATION
  • ALSO REFERRED TO AS THE SAID PRINCIPLE

S = Specific A = Adaptation I = Imposed D = Demands

It states that the physical activity we are involved

in encourages our bodies to adapt in specific

ways to meet its demands.

training principle of adaptation1
TRAINING PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTATION
  • WHAT IS MEANT BY ADAPTATION?

- a long term physiological change in response to training loads that allows the body to meet the new demands.

Athletes training - specific to their sport.

  • The outcome of the athletes training adaptations need to be specific to their training program.
adaptations
ADAPTATIONS
  • IF AN ATHLETES TRAINING LOAD WAS NOT SUFFICIENT TO CHALLENGE THE BODY, THEN NO ADAPTATIONS WILL RESULT AND A PLATEAU WILL OCCUR!
  • PLATEAU……. When the body adjusts to new loads and maintenance of existing conditions/state prevails.
adaptations1
ADAPTATIONS…
  • ARE THE RESULT OF SPECIFIC DEMANDS PLACED ON THE BODY
  • ARE DEPENDENT ON THE VOLUME, INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY OF TRAINING
checkpoints pg 265
CHECKPOINTS PG 265
  • TO ASSIST REFER TO PG 239 write down please

Qu 1a: List 3 training methods that will predominantly bring about training adaptations to the aerobic energy system.

B: List three training methods that will predominantly bring about training adaptations to the anaerobic energy systems.

2. List two reasons why it is advantageous to use fat in preference to CHO as a fuel when working under aerobic conditions… CHO are also important though!!

3. What role do enzymes play in the body?

adaptations2
ADAPTATIONS

ADAPTATIONS OR LONG TERM CHANGES OCCUR TO EACH OF THE FOLLOWING…

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

ENERGY SYSTEM

cardiac hypertrophy
Endurance Trained

Anaerobic Trained

Untrained

Enlarged left ventricle

Thick ventricle wall

Cardiac Hypertrophy
stroke volume
Stroke Volume
  • As a result of the enlarged ventricle, stroke volume will increase with aerobic training.
  • This is beneficial at rest and at submaximal exercise because it allows the same amount of blood to be delivered to the muscles but with less beats (lower intensity).
  • At maximal exercise the higher SV means more blood in total is delivered to the working muscles, thus, more oxygen and glycogen is received for energy production while waste products (lactic acid, H+ ions, CO2, ADP) are removed quickly
muscular adaptations aerobic training
Muscular Adaptations Aerobic Training
  • Increased Capillary Density
    • Occurs in the heart and skeletal muscle
muscular adaptations aerobic training1
Endurance Trained

Strength Trained

Untrained

Muscular Adaptations Aerobic Training
  • Increased Mitochondria

mitochondria

capillary

mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Are the site where ATP is produced.
  • More of these = more oxygen can be used by the muscle to breakdown fats and CHO’s
  • Thus more ATP can be produced aerobically and endurance performance increases.
  • There is an increase in size and number
  • Mainly occurs in slow twitch fibres
  • This accounts for a lot of the increase in VO2max following endurance training.
capillary density
Capillary Density
  • Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels that surround the muscle tissue
  • They are the site of gas exchange between the muscle and blood
  • More capillaries enables more O2 (and other nutrients such as CHO and FFA’s) to be delivered to the muscle.
  • It also means waste products can be removed faster.
oxidative enzymes
Oxidative Enzymes
  • Oxidative enzymes are responsible for converting glycogen to ATP via the Kreb’s Cycle. Oxidation = oxygen = aerobic system
  • Improved function of these enzymes = larger amounts of ATP produced & more efficiently (faster)
muscle glycogen synthase
Muscle Glycogen Synthase
  • Enzyme that converts glucose to glycogen.
  • Training results in increased concentration in slow-twitch and also fast-twitch fibres.
  • Increases in this enzyme = more glycogen can be stored and ultimately more energy can be produced through both anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis.
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