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Training Adaptations. LIVER. SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE. Adrenal Gland. Adipocytes. Mitochondria. TRAINING WILL: Decrease RER Does not effect sub-max oxygen uptake Increases LT and lowers muscle and blood lactate at any sub-max workload.

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Training adaptations

LIVER

SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

Adrenal Gland

Adipocytes

Mitochondria


Training adaptations

TRAINING WILL:

Decrease RER

Does not effect sub-max oxygen uptake

Increases LT and lowers muscle and blood lactate at any sub-max workload


Training adaptations

However, when express per gram of mitochondrial protein training does not alter specific activity.

Aerobic training can cause 50-100% increases in mitochondrial mass per gram of skeletal muscle.


Training adaptations

Total CHO: training does not alter specific activity.

Pre = 145 umol/min

Post = 100 umol/min

or a 50% decrease

This is due to decrease reliance on blood glucose and muscle glycogen


Training adaptations

Training decreases R training does not alter specific activity.a(rate of appearance) of glucose from the liver. This means less glycogen depletion in liver.


Muscle glycogen depletion
Muscle Glycogen Depletion training does not alter specific activity.


Training adaptations

With training you can double your mitochondrial mass, thus at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.


Training adaptations1
Training Adaptations at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.

 # mitochondria

  •  blood lactic acid

 epi/norepi release during exercise

 muscle & liver glycogen use

 intramuscular fat use

 # MCT’s (via  mitochondria)

 CAT I (ß-oxidation)

 cAMP


Training adaptations cont
Training Adaptations (cont.) at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.

  • Two major changes that occur with training

  • 1.)  # mitochondria in muscle cells

    • can be doubled at most

  • 2.)  epi/norepi release during exercise

    • training  sympathetic activity at any given work load


Benefits of adaptations to training
Benefits of adaptations to training at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.

  • 1.)  Glycolysis

    • Spares CHO, liver glycogen

    • maintains blood glucose (CNS)

    • mechanisms:

      •  catecholamines   PFK activity

      •  mitochondria  faster ATP generation,  [AMP&ADP]   PFK activity

  • 2.)  Blood Lactic Acid

    • keeps blood pH normal

    • mechanisms:

      •  glycolysis

      •  mitochondria (more MCTs)


Benefits of adaptations to training cont
Benefits of adaptations to training (cont.) at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.

  • 3.)  Fat use

    •  fat use from adipocytes via  epi/norepi

    •  fat use from intramuscular TGs

    • mechanisms:

      •  mitochondria (via  in CAT I activity)

      •  acetyl CoA production   PFK   glycolysis

  • Take home point:

    • *Training  glycolysis &  Fat use via  mitochondria &  catecholamines*


Muscle glycogen vs ffa expenditure
Muscle Glycogen vs. FFA Expenditure at any giving work load each mitochondrion will only be working (ie producing ATP) at half the rate it was before training. The main stimulus for increases in oxidative phosphorylation is ADP. Therefore the increase in intracellular ADP must be less in trained individuals.