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What are corporations?. A corporation is a business owned by investors. The investors by stock , or partial ownership in the company. If the business does well then the stockholders (owners) get a share of the profits called dividends . What was the North’s strategy during the Civil War?.

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A corporation is a business owned by investors. The investors by stock, or partial ownership in the company. If the business does well then the stockholders (owners) get a share of the profits called dividends.


Chain – Saw – Seize. They wanted to blockade the southern coast so the Confederacy could not receive supplies (chain). They wanted to cut the South in half by controlling the Mississippi River (saw). They wanted to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond (seize).


Manifest Destiny was when James Polk was President in the 1840’s. The United States believed it was their right, even their destiny to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The U.S. gained the Mexican Cession, Oregon and Texas at this time.


Nativism was the dislike of foreigners. It was due to xenophobia or the fear of foreigners. It was most evident in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s. Chinese immigration was reduced with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Quota Act limited immigration and each country had a certain amount (quota) of immigrants based upon the number of people from that country currently in the United States. One of the fears was that the immigrants were taking people’s jobs in factories.


Child labor was important early on in the Industrial Revolution. Children were small and nimble and could work in places larger people couldn’t. They were often paid much less than adults which made them popular with employers. The photography of reformer Lewis Hine reduced child labor in the early 1900’s.


Muckrakers were journalists who exposed the corruption found in the cities during the Progressive Era. Thomas Nast made political cartoons of William “Boss” Tweed showing his corrupt practices. Ida Tarbell was a muckraker who targeted big businesses. Lincoln Steffens reported on the corruption in city governments.


All 3 amendments were part of the period of Reconstruction. The 13th Amendment freed the slaves. The 14th Amendment made the former slaves citizens. The 15th Amendment said you couldn’t keep somebody from voting due to their race. You can remember the amendments in order by the phrase free(13) citizens(14) vote(15).


Settlement houses provided food and shelter. The most famous settlement house was Hull House by Jane Addams. The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) held dances and sporting events. The Salvation Army was formed at this time.


They went to baseball, football and basketball (invented by James Naismith) games. Variety shows called Vaudeville were popular. People enjoyed the lively music known as ragtime.


Farmers were able to get cheap land because of the Homestead Act which gave 160 acres to farmers if they farmed the land for 5 years. These farmers were known as sodbusters because they had to break through the thick sod to farm. They eventually used barbed wire around their farms which closed the open range and stopped cattle drives.


Settlers moved west to get land and to go to the gold rushes in California (1849) and the Black Hills (1870’s). Native Americans tried to keep their land but often got into fights such as Little Big Horn where General Custer was killed and Wounded Knee. Buffalo were killed for meat and sport until they almost disappeared destroying the Native Americans culture. Most Native Americans were sent to reservations. The Dawes Act tried to get the Indians to be farmers, unsuccessfully.


Black Codes limited the rights of African Americans after Reconstruction. States required a poll tax to vote. Poor blacks could not afford this. A literacy test was sometimes required. Blacks had been forbidden to read as slaves so most couldn’t pass the test. White people who couldn’t read were able to vote thanks to the grandfather clauses which said if your father or grandfather voted then so could you.


The case of Plessy vs. Ferguson established that separate but equal facilities was legal. This led to many Jim Crow Laws that separated black and white people in restaurants, buses and other places.


The steel industry was dominated by Andrew Carnegie. He used the Bessemer process to create cheap, strong steel. This steel was later used as supports in skyscrapers.


Abolitionists were trying to get slavery in the South stopped. Harriet Beecher Stowe, an abolitionist, wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which aroused anger against slavery in the North. It was a major cause of the Civil War.


Sectionalism is loyalty to your section of the country. The South was an agricultural area with slaves. They had little manufacturing or railroads. The North was much more populated than the South. It had a lot of industry and railroads.


Some railroads offered rebates. These were secret discounts to people who shipped a lot of goods to get their business. Rebates raised the prices for small farmers. They would also get involved in price wars.


The Industrial Revolution had many characteristics. There was a shift to new sources of power such as electricity. Cities grew as people came to the cities work in factories. The assembly line was used in factories as goods became more machine made. The first automated assembly line was in Henry Ford’s car plant.


A goal of businesses was to become a monopoly. A monopoly was when a business controlled most of a certain industry. Sometimes they would form trusts which is when 1 board of directors ruled over several corporations. John D. Rockefeller’sStandard Oil Trust was one of the largest. Reformers used the Sherman Antitrust Act to try to break up trusts although judges used it to weaken labor unions that were striking.


During Reconstruction the Freedmen’s Bureau was set up to help and educate freed slaves. Radical Republicans in Congress were very concerned with protecting the rights of freedmen. Carpetbaggers, people from the North and southern Republicans called scalawags (favored Radical Republicans) tried to benefit themselves during this time period. The Ku Klux Klan was a group who tried to intimidate the freedmen so they wouldn’t vote.


Labor unions were groups of people who tried to get better conditions for workers during the Industrial Revolution. Terence Powderly founded the Knights of Labor which was too idealistic. Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor which set more realistic goals. Early judges usually sided with business owners when unions tried work stoppage called strikes to get better conditions. The Sherman Antitrust Act was used against unions at first.


The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was established to push for more rights for blacks. Booker T. Washington pushed for equality but said unfair treatment was o.k. until blacks were educated and rich enough to be equals. He founded Tuskegee Institute, a college for black people. W.E.B. Du Bois wanted equality quicker and criticized Booker T. Washington. George Washington Carver was a great scientist who made many discoveries such as peanut butter.


Robert E. Lee from Virginia was the Confederate leader for much of the war. The North had many leaders until Ulysses S. Grant became a very successful leader.


Gettysburg is often known as the turning point of the war. The North gained momentum after this battle. The Battle of the Monitor vs. the Merrimack, two ironclad ships, was the most famous battle at sea.


In the Gettysburg Address Lincoln said that the war was a test of whether democracy would be able to survive in the United States. It was also made to honor the dead at Gettysburg.

abraham lincoln was president of the united states and jefferson davis was for the confederacy
Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States and Jefferson Davis was for the Confederacy.

Lincoln freed the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation. It did not apply to border states because he didn’t want to anger them so they might leave the Union. This changed his goal for the war from keeping the United States Union together to also freeing the slaves.

Vanderbilt started off in the steamship business but is most famous for his ruthless behavior in dominating the railroad industry.

Pools were when several railroad companies with services to the same area set prices so they didn’t get in a price war and drive each other out of business.


Push factors are things such as religious and political persecution which drove people from their native country to the United States. The Irish potato famine is another example of a push factor.


Ethnic groups are groups of people from the same country. They often lived in ghettoes in cities. A ghetto was an area with a dominant ethnic group. Ghettoes helped to provide support for immigrants when they first arrived in the United States.


The 54th Massachusetts was a group of black soldiers with white officers. They faced discrimination before finally becoming famous for their bravery at Fort Wagner.


The South had better leaders and were fighting a defensive war. The North and much more people, more railroads to transport supplies and soldiers and factories to make goods.


Sharecropping was when freedmen farmed a white person’s land, using the white person tools and seed. They had to give a share of their crop back to the landowner. Often the white land owner was their former master. They were locked into a cycle of poverty because they never made enough money to pay off the cost of the seed and tools so they were unable to leave and buy their own land.


The Transcontinental Railroad made it possible to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean by train. It attracted many Chinese immigrants to help build the railroad.

The free enterprise system is when private individuals own businesses. The goal of these businesses is to make a profit.

Thomas Edison was the Wizard of Menlo Park. He was responsible for hundreds of inventions including the phonograph and an effective light bulb.


The Pullman Strike was when workers at George Pullman’s railroad car factory went on strike. The court issued an injunction which told the workers they had to go back to work because they were restricting free trade which was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.


The Triangle Fire was a fire at a clothing factory. The owners had locked the workers in the building so they couldn’t get out when the fire started. Many women jumped to their death. It lead to safer factory conditions including fire escapes.


Pull factors are things in the United States which attracted immigrants. They included the promise of cheap land and jobs in factories. Family that was already established in the United States also drew people. Religious and political freedom were also pull factors.


Immigrants from Asia on the west coast often landed at Angel Island in San Francisco while European immigrants usually landed at Ellis Island in New York City.


Assimilation is when immigrants tried to become Americanized. Some people believe in the melting pot theory of Americanization where all cultures combined into 1 culture. The salad bowl theory says that Americans share some culture while maintaining their own traditions.


Mark Twain whose real name was Samuel Clemens was the most famous American author. He wrote Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.