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POINT of VIEW. From whose perspective...?. 1st Person POV. I, me, my, we, our…. First person Narrator. Uses “I” Story is told from a main character’s POV. First person Narrator.

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  1. POINT of VIEW From whose perspective...?

  2. 1st Person POV • I, me, my, we, our…

  3. First person Narrator • Uses “I” • Story is told from a main character’s POV

  4. First person Narrator “If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.” --J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye (1951)

  5. First person Narrator • True--nervous--very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad?  The disease had sharpened my senses--not destroyed--not dulled them.  Above all was the sense of hearing acute.  I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth.  I heard many things in hell.  How, then, am I mad?  Hearken!  and observe how healthily--how calmly I can tell you the whole story. --Edgar Allan Poe, “The Tell-Tale Heart” (1850)

  6. What does 1st Person POV look like?

  7. 2nd Person POV • You, yours, your, yourself

  8. 2nd Person POV • A second-person POV is rare • Uses “you” and presents commands • Often the narrator is speaking to him/herself

  9. 2nd Person POV “You woke up this morning, in a bad mood. Feeling sluggish, you decided to stay in bed and sleep the day away. Now your boss is calling, wondering where you are. What will you do?”

  10. 2nd Person POV • You are not the kind of guy who would be a place like this at this time of the morning.  But here you are, and you cannot say that the terrain is entirely unfamiliar, although the details are fuzzy.  You are at a nightclub talking to a girl with a shaved head.  The club is either Heartbreak or the Lizard Lounge.” --Jay McInerney, Bright Lights, Big City (1984)

  11. 3rd Person POV • Omniscient • Limited Omniscient • Objective

  12. 3rd Person POV: Omniscient • Omniscient = all knowing…the narrator can see into the minds of all characters

  13. 3rd Person POV: Omniscient Omniscient  • godlike narrator; he/she can enter character's minds and know everything that is going on, past, present, and future. • Usually a narrator outside the text

  14. 3rd Person POV: Omniscient A poor man had twelve children and worked night and day just to get enough bread for them to eat.  Now when the thirteenth came into the world, he did not know what to do and in his misery ran out onto the great highway to ask the first person he met to be godfather.”             --Jakob & Wilhelm Grimm, “Godfather Death” (1812)

  15. What does 3rd Person Omniscient POV look like?

  16. What does 3rd Person Omniscient POV look like?

  17. 3rd Person POV: Limited Omniscient • Narrator can see into ONE character’s mind.

  18. 3rd Person POV: Limited Omniscient • All characters have thought privacy except ONE.

  19. 3rd Person POV: Limited Omniscient • Gives the impression that we are very close to the mind of that ONE character, though viewing it from a distance.

  20. 3rd Person POV: Limited Omniscient • The girl he loved was shy and quick and the smallest in the class, and usually she said nothing, but one day she opened her mouth and roared, and when the teacher--it was French class--asked her what she was doing, she said, in French, I am a lion, and he wanted to put his hand against the rumblings in her throat. --Elizabeth Graver, “The Boy Who Fell Forty Feet” (1993)

  21. What does 3rd Person Limited Omniscient POV look like?

  22. 3rd Person POV: Objective • Narrator only describes and does not enter characters’ thoughts.

  23. 3rd Person POV: Objective • Like a video camera, the narrator reports what happens and what the characters are saying.

  24. 3rd Person POV: Objective • The narrator adds no comment about how the characters are feeling.

  25. 3rd Person POV: Objective • The narrator offers no comment on the mood of the setting—no mention of awkwardness, ease, tension etc...

  26. 3rd Person POV: Objective • The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green.  The people of the village began to gather in the square, between the post office and the bank, around ten o’clock.             --Shirley Jackson, “The Lottery”

  27. 3rd Person POV: Objective ” You should have killed yourself last week," he said to the deaf man. The old man motioned with his finger. "A little more," he said. The waiter poured on into the glass so that the brandy slopped over and ran down the stem into the top saucer of the pile. "Thank you," the old man said. The waiter took the bottle back inside the cafe. He sat down at the table with his colleague again. "He's drunk now," he said.  "He's drunk every night."  "What did he want to kill himself for?"  "How should I know."  "How did he do it?"  "He hung himself with a rope."  "Who cut him down?"  "His niece."  "Why did they do it?"  "Fear for his soul."  “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” by Ernest Hemingway

  28. POINT of VIEW Remember, Point of View = Who is telling the story and how much they contribute. El fin.

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