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Chapter 21 Section 4

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  1. Chapter 21Section 4 The Napoleonic Era

  2. Napoleon as Dictator • The period from 1799 to 1814 while Napoleon was dictator was called the Napoleonic Era • The people accepted Napoleon as dictator because most craved stability, others were too afraid to protest • He reorganized the government to give himself unlimited power. • He had the power to appoint or dismiss any officials and to propose all new laws • The only purpose his Consulate served was to approve or reject Napoleon’s decisions • Napoleon put his new constitution to a vote in a procedure called a {plebiscite- people could only vote yes or no and could make no suggestions} • The French voters approved the constitution

  3. Accomplishments in Government • {Under Napoleon’s government scholars organized all French law into a system called the Napoleonic Code} • A central financial institution was formed as the Bank of France • He created a system of furthering education in the way of high schools, universities and trade schools • {In 1801 Napoleon came to an agreement with the pope called the Concordat- it confirmed that most of France was Catholic but still allowed religious freedom} • Using skillful mediation Napoleon broke the alliance between France’s enemies and by 1802 Russia, Austria and Great Britain had either deserted the alliance or had made peace with France

  4. Napoleon in Europe • In 1804 the French people voted to make Napoleon their emperor. • The British felt that France threatened their territory so they went to war again with France • Austria, Russia and Sweden joined with Britain and Spain sided with France • In 1805, Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led a British fleet that conquered a French/Spanish fleet, which saved Britain from invasion • Napoleon in turn defeated the Russian and Austrian armies which led to the collapse of the war against France • Napoleon forced Austria and Prussia to sign another treaty. Russia allied itself with France. He gained direct control of the Netherlands and Spain. He also abolished the Holy Roman Empire and placed much of Italy under his control

  5. Napoleon crossing the Alps on his way to take Italy

  6. Increased Nationalism • In all the lands he controlled, Napoleon enforced the Napoleonic Code and he abolished feudalism • The French unintentionally increased feelings of {nationalism- a love of one’s country rather than one’s native region}- in the countries they conquered • This increased opposition to French rule in many of the conquered nations • Napoleon pushed too far when he invaded Portugal (which relied on Britain for its economy) and Spain and overthrowing both their kings and placing his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne • Spain rebelled in 1808 and Britain sent an army led by the future Duke of Wellington to aid Spain and Portugal in their efforts • The Peninsular War lasted from 1808-1814 until Spain evicted Joseph Bonaparte

  7. Duke of Wellington at the Peninsular War

  8. Catastrophe in Russia • Czar Alexander I of Russia opened up trade with Britain in 1812 • A very angry Napoleon decided to invade Russia • He recruited an army of 600,000 and in 1812 marched to Russia • The Russian defenders slowly fell back deep into their own country as they did so they executed a {scorched-earth policy- burning or destroying crops and everything else the opposing army might need}. • {The French did capture Moscow, but as soon as they entered the city the Russians burned the city to the ground. So it wasn’t really a great victory • With no shelter and winter coming, Napoleon was forced to retreat on October 19, 1812} • By the time he got back to Prussia he lost 2/3 of his army

  9. Final Defeat • {The monarchs in western Europe took advantage of Napoleon’s defeat in Russia} • Prussia, Austria and Great Britain joined Russia in a alliance against France • Napoleon retreated into France until he was captured in Paris in March 1814 • {They gave Napoleon a pension and retired him to the island of Elba off the west coast of Italy} • France was allowed to keep the boundaries of 1790 and they restored the Bourbon monarchy and put Louis XVIII the brother of Louis XVI on the throne • France once again had a king

  10. ELBA =>

  11. The Hundred Days • Learning of the new monarchy, Napoleon escaped from Elba and landed in France on March 1, 1815 • He reclaimed the army that King Louis XVIII had sent after him and marched on Paris on the 20th • {Louis XVIII fled into exile and Napoleon once again ruled France} • Great Britain and their allied forces sent armies to France to stop Napoleon. • {On June 18, 1815 the armies collided at Waterloo where Napoleon met his defeat by the Duke of Wellington} • Napoleon asked to be sent to the U.S. but he was sent into exile to the remote island of St. Helena where he would live under constant guard • He died there in 1821 • The monarchs once again took power

  12. Review Questions • What do you call the procedure where people could only vote yes or no and could make no suggestions? • Under Napoleon’s government scholars organized all French law into a system, what was it called? • In 1801 Napoleon came to an agreement with the pope called the Concordat- what did it do? • What is nationalism? • This is the burning or destroying crops and everything else the opposing army might need. • Did the French capture Moscow?