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Liquids and Solids. Chapter 16 E-mail: benzene4president@gmail.com Web-site: http://clas.sa.ucsb.edu/staff/terri/. Liquids and Solids – ch. 16. 1. Indicate the types of forces present for each of the following : a. CCl 4 b. HF c. NH 4 Br d. F 2 e. CH 3 OH f. H 2 S g. KOH

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liquids and solids

Liquids and Solids

Chapter 16

E-mail: benzene4president@gmail.com

Web-site: http://clas.sa.ucsb.edu/staff/terri/

liquids and solids ch 16
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

1. Indicate the types of forces present for each of the following:

a. CCl4

b. HF

c. NH4Br

d. F2

e. CH3OH

f. H2S

g. KOH

h. BH3

i. H2CO

liquids and solids ch 161
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

Types of Forces

Ionic – cation (metal or NH4+)/anion (nonmetal)

Hydrogen bonding – For molecular compounds

with H-F, H-O or H-N bonds

Dipole-Dipole – For polar molecular compounds

Dispersion – For all molecular compounds and

noble gases

liquids and solids ch 162
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

2. Using intermolecular forces predict the following:

a. highest melting point F2or Br2

b. highest melting point NaClorNaF

c. highest boiling point HOCH2CH2OH or CH3CH2OH

d. highest boiling point CH3CH3or CH3CH2CH3

e. highest vapor pressure CH3H2OH orCH3OCH3

f. highest vapor pressure CCl4 or CH2Cl2

g. highest freezing point MgOor MgF2

h. highest surface tension CH3OH or C24H50

liquids and solids ch 163
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

3. A topaz crystal has an inter-planar spacing of 1.36 Å. Calculate the wavelength of the X ray that should be used if θ is 15° (assume n=1).

liquids and solids ch 165
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

(b) FCC a.k.a. cubic closest packed (CCP) is the result of abc arrangement of hexagonal unit cells

liquids and solids ch 167
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

4. Zinc crystallizes in a cubic closest packed structure. The radius of a zinc atom is 135 pm. Calculate the density in g/mL for solid zinc.

liquids and solids ch 169
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

5. Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit cell. The density is 4.50 g/cm3. Calculate the atomic radius of titanium.

liquids and solids ch 1610
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

6. Compare the cubic closest packed structures for NaCl (radius of Na+ = 0.66 radius of Cl-), ZnS (radius of Zn2+ = 0.35 radius of S2-) and CaCl2 (radius of Ca2+ = 0.68 radius of Cl-).

liquids and solids ch 1611
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

Trigonal holes are filled when the radius

of one ion is less than 22% of the other ion

Tetrahedral holes are filled when the radius

of one ion is between 22% and 41% of the other ion

Octahedral holes are filled when the radius

of one ion is between 41% and 73% of the other ion

Cubic holes are filled when the radius

of on ion is greater than 73% or the other ion

liquids and solids ch 1612
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

7. Identify the type of doping in each of the following.

a. Galium doped with tin

b. Silicon doped with boron

liquids and solids ch 1613
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

8. Draw phase diagrams for water and carbon dioxide. Label the normal melting point and normal boiling point. For each substance indicate the phase that is the most dense.

liquids and solids ch 1615
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

9. The enthalpy of vaporization for water is 44 kJ/mol. What is the boiling point if the atmospheric pressure were 0.33 atm?

ln(P1/P2) = (ΔHvap/R)(T2-1 – T1-1)

liquids and solids ch 1616
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

10. How much heat does is required to take 10 g of ice at -31 °C to vapor at 155 °C? (Csolid = 2.03 J/g°C , Cliquid = 4.18 J/g°C , Cgas = 2.02 J/g°C, ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol, and ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol)

liquids and solids ch 1617
Liquids andSolids – ch. 16

11. Determine the final temperature if a 25 g cube of ice at -7 °C is placed in 180 mL of water at 64 °C and allowed to come to equilibrium. (Csolid = 2.03 J/g°C , Cliquid = 4.18 J/g°C , Cgas = 2.02 J/g°C, ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol, and ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol)

liquids and solids answer key
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

1. Indicate the types of forces present for each of the following:

a. CCl4 => dispersionb. HF => H-bonding and dispersion

c. NH4Br => ionic d. F2 => dispersion e. CH3OH => H-bonding, dipole-dipole and dispersion f. H2S => dipole-dipole and dispersion g. KOH => ionic h. BH3 => dispersion

i. H2CO =>dipole-dipole and dispersion

2. Using intermolecular forces predict the following:

a. Br2 b. NaF c. HOCH2CH2OH d. CH3CH2CH3 e. NH3

f. CCl4 g. MgO h. C24H50

3. A topaz crystal has an inter-planar spacing of 1.36 Å. Calculate the wavelength of the X ray that should be used if θ is 15° (assume n=1).

nλ=2dsinθ => (1)(λ)=2(1.36Å)(sin 15°) => λ = 0.70 Å or 7nm

liquids and solids answer key1
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

4. Zinc crystallizes in a cubic closest packed structure. The radius of a zinc atom is 135 pm. Calculate the density in g/mL for solid zinc.

D = mass/volume => since cubic closest packed has 4 atoms per unit cell => mass of unit cell = 4(65.39amu)(1g/6.022x1023amu) = 4.34x10-22g

The volume of the unit cell is edge3 => e3=(2.828(1.35x10-8cm)) 3 => 5.57x10-23cm3

D = (4.34x10-22g)/(5.57x10-23cm3) = 7.8g/cm3

5. Titanium metal has a body-centered cubic unit cell. The density is 4.50 g/cm3. Calculate the atomic radius of titanium.Body centered cubic has 2 atoms per unit cell => mass of unit cell = 2(47.88amu)(1g/6.022x1023amu) = 1.59x10-22g => volume = m/d => volume = (1.59x10-22g)/(4.5g/cm3) = 3.53x10-23 cm3 => edge = (3.53x10-23 cm3 )1/3 = 3.29x10-8cm or 329pm => radius = 329pm/2.309 = 142pm

liquids and solids answer key2
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

6. Compare the cubic closest packed structures for NaCl (radius of Na+ = 0.66 radius of Cl-), ZnS (radius of Zn2+ = 0.35 radius of S2-) and CaCl2 (radius of Ca2+ = 0.68 radius of Cl-).

NaCl => Na+ will fill all of the octahedral holes

ZnS => Zn2+ will fill all of the ½ of the tetrahedral holes

CaCl2 => Ca2+ will fill ½ of the octahedral holes

7. Identify the type of doping in each of the following.

a. Ga/Sn => n-type b. Si/B => p-type

8. What type of solid would you expect each of the following to form?

a. KBrionic b. H2S molecular c. SiO2covalent network

d. Pbatomic/metallic e. P atomic/covalent network

f. Xeatomic g. CO2 molecular

liquids and solids answer key4
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

10. The enthalpy of vaporization for water is 44 kJ/mol. What is the boiling point if the atmospheric pressure were 0.33 atm? Since we know that the BP of water at 1 atm is 100°C we can figure out the BP at all other pressures using the ΔHvap

ln(P1/P2) = (ΔHvap/R)(T2-1 – T1-1)

ln(0.33atm/1atm) = (44kJ/mol/0.008314kJ/molK)(T2-1 – 373-1K)

T2 = 405K

11. How much heat does is required to take 10 g of ice at -31 °C to vapor at 155 °C? (Csolid = 2.03 J/g°C , Cliquid = 4.18 J/g°C , Cgas = 2.02 J/g°C, ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol, and ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol)

This is a 5 step process => 3 changes in temperature (q=mC Δ T) and 2 phase changes (q=n ΔH)

liquids and solids answer key5
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

q1=(10g)(2.03 J/g°C)(+31°C) = 629.3J or 0.629kJ

q2=(10g/18g/mol)(6.01kJ/mol) = 3.34kJ

q3=(10g)(4.18 J/g°C)(+100°C)= 4180J or 4.18kJ

q4=(10g/18g/mol)(40.7 kJ/mol) = 22.6kJ

q5=(10g)(2.02 J/g°C)(+55°C) = 1.11kJ

qtotal = 31.86kJ

12. Determine the final temperature if a 25 g cube of ice at -7 °C is placed in 180 mL of water at 64 °C and allowed to come to equilibrium. (Csolid = 2.03 J/g°C , Cliquid = 4.18 J/g°C , Cgas = 2.02 J/g°C, ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol, and ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol)

Heat is transferred from the hot water into the cold water

-qhot = +qcold

liquids and solids answer key6
Liquids andSolids – Answer Key

-mCΔT = mCsolid Δ T + nHfus +mCliquidΔ T

-(180g)(4.18J/g°C)(Tf-64°C) =(25g)(2.03J/g°C)(7°C)+(25g/18g/mol)(6010J/mol)+(25g)(4.18J/g°C)(Tf-0°C)

Tf = 46°C