Chapter 24 Section 4 Toward Victory
Italy Surrenders • 1943-Stalin urges Americans and the British to invade France • Roosevelt and Churchill felt they were not prepared so they decided to remove Italy from the war • July 1943 America and Britain sends troops across the Mediterranean from Tunisia and the Italian island of Sicily is taken • After taking Sicily the troops worked North along the Italian Peninsula • Mussolini was dismissed from office by the king of Italy and on September 8, 1943 the new government surrendered to the allied powers • But the fighting in Italy was not yet
D-Day • 1944 Allied forces were ready to invade France • General Eisenhower led the planning of the landing • The landing involved thousands of ships and aircraft http://www.history.com/topics/d-day/photos# http://www.history.com/topics/dwight-d-eisenhower/photos D-day landing at Normandy General Eisenhower
June 6, 1944 over 155,000 American, British, and Canadian troops crossed the English Channel • The troops landed on five of Normandy’s beaches in western France • German opposition was quickly overcame at four of the beaches. • Omaha Beach presented an especially fierce German defense against American troops • Even though the mission was a success 2,500 American troops died on Omaha Beach • Within a month over 1 million Allied troops had stormed ashore and on August 25, 1944 they entered Paris ending 4 months of Nazi rule http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/s300000/s320902.jpg
http://www3.ausa.org/dday/mappage.htm This map shows the D-Day invasion of Normandy Beach.
Battle of the Bulge • After reaching Paris in August, Allied troops pushed East until the Germans counterattacked in Belgium on December 16,1944 • Due to poor weather all Allied aircraft was grounded for the first week of the German attack • Hitler poured all of his remaining reserves into the attack and created a “bulge” in the American lines • German troops came close to breaking through the lines but were not successful due to supply shortages • Both Germany and the Allies lost tens of thousands of men in the battle but Germany was more affected by the loss because they had used all of their reserves where as the Allies still had reserves • Germany was now open from the east and west http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Ww2_allied_advance_siegfried_line.jpg/985px-Ww2_allied_advance_siegfried_line.jpg +
Germany Invaded • A huge Soviet force entered Germany from the east in January 1945 • Soon after the Soviet force entered from the east the Western Allies entered from the west • Allied armies advanced on the ground while their planes bombed German industries and cities http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90706798/resource/ This is a synthetic oil plant in Zeitz, Germany that was destroyed by bombs dropped from an Allied plane.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Dies • While Allies were advancing in Germany the civilians on the home front were devastated to learn that President Franklin D. Roosevelt had died of a stroke on April 12, 1945 • Vice President Harry S. Truman, who had little experience dealing with important policy issues, was thrust into office at a very critical moment • Many Americans could not remember a leader other than F.D.R. and were concerned about Truman’s ability to make important decisions
Victory In Europe • Germany was quickly collapsing and on April 16, Soviet troops began an assault on Berlin • Hitler took shelter under the streets of Berlin in a shelter and after seeing his Nazi empire in ruins, committed suicide on April 30, 1945 • A week after Hitler’s suicide representatives of Germany’s armed forces unconditionally surrendered at Eisenhower’s headquarters in France • On May 8th the Allies celebrated V-E Day or Victory in Europe Day
Island Hopping • Japan’s advance in the Pacific had been stopped at the Battle of Midway in 1942 • After the Battle of Midway Americans went on the offensive with a strategy known as island hopping • American forces would capture some Japanese-held islands and then continue on to others. Each island that was captured was a stepping stone towards Japan. • On August 7,1942 U.S. Marines landed on Guadalcanal -an island in the south Pacific • Burdened by hunger and disease, American troops fought a grueling battle for six months until they gained control of the island.
Navajo Soldiers and Island Hopping • Navajo soldiers made a key contribution to the island hopping campaign. • The soldiers would radio important messages from island to island in their own language and when the Japanese intercepted the messages they were unable to understand them http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/miscnara/mn57875.jpg
Island Hopping • In January 1945, US soldiers landed on the Philippian island of Luzon and then they advanced to Manila • After close to a month of urban warfare Manila was secured • MacArthur’s promise to return to the Philippines had been secured • The Philippian campaign cost 14,000 American lives, 350,000 Japanese lives, and 100,000 Filipino civilian lives
Japan Holds Firm! • At the same time of the Philippian campaign island-hopping Marines were approaching Japan • The last two stops of this campaign were Iwo Jima and Okinawa • Iwo Jima occurred in February and cost 6,000 American lives • Only 1% of Iwo Jima’s Japanese defenders survived • Okinawa occurred in April and cost 12,000 American lives • Many of the Japanese soldiers jumped off of cliffs to avoid being captured Okinawa, Japan http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/okinawa/
Kamikaze • Introduced during final days of the war • Based on an ancient code that stated surrender dishonored a warrior • Japanese suicide pilots crashed their planes into American ships in Kamikaze missions • These missions led to the belief that only a full-scale invasion of the Japanese islands would force Japan to surrender Kamikaze suicide pilots http://images.military.com/pics/kamikaze.jpg
The War In Japan • Spring of 1945- Japan being bombed by American bombers • Japan’s coast bombarded by American ships • Shipping is destroyed • Food shortage affected millions of Japanese • Leaders of Japan still talked about winning • President Truman plans to invade Japan in the fall • The invasion could cost half a million American casualties • July 1945-Truman learns that the atomic bomb has been successfully tested in New Mexico
The Bombings • August 6, 1945-American plane drops first atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan • In minutes 130,000 people died • Japan refuses to surrender • August 9, 1945-American plane drops second atomic bomb on city of Nagasaki, Japan • 35,000 people died instantly • Besides the immediate deaths in both cities many more people died later from radiation poisoning The bombing of Nagasaki, Japan. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002722137/
Japan Surrenders! • August14, 1945-Japan’s emperorannouncessurrender • Thisday becomes known as V-J Day • September 2, 1945-General MacArthuracceptsthe surrender http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/M/Douglas-MacArthur-9390257-1-402.jpg
Cost of the war? • About 60 million people • 400,000 were Americans • About 40 million or 2/3 were civilians http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004672832/ Memorial service for American soldiers that were killed on Midway Island.
The Holocaust • Nazism was built on racism and extreme anti-Semitism • During the war Hitler worked on what he called the “final solution to the Jewish problem” which was an attempt to kill off the enter Jewish population. • Approximately 6 million Jews were killed • Entire families were wiped out • As a result a new word was added to the English language • GENOCIDE- The deliberate attempt to wipe out an entire nation or group of people • Not only the Jews were victims of the Nazis. • Millions of Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, communists, people with mental disabilities, and people with physical disabilities were also killed. http://www.history.com/topics/the-holocaust/photos#
Death Camps • Death camps- an efficient system of mass murder • Six death camps were built in Poland. • Railway cattle cars were used to transport millions of people to the death camps. • Gas chambers were used to kill hundreds of people at a time. • Horrifying medical experiments and torture were also used to kill people Auschwitz concentration camp. http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/othercamps/images/auschgate.jpg
Liberation • Allied soldiers were shocked by the sight and smell of the corpses that were piled up in the death camps. • The people who survived were like living skeletons. • An American radio reporter said; “In another part of the camp they showed me the children, hundreds of them. Some were only six years old. One rolled up his sleeves, showed me his number. It was tattooed on his arm. B-6030, it was. The others showed me their numbers. They will carry them till they die....I could see their ribs through their thin shirts.” --Edward R. Murrow, PM, April 16, 1945 He then concluded, “I reported what I saw and heard, but only part of it. For most of it, I have no words.”
War Crimes Trials • There had never been war crimes trials up to this point in history. • The victors prosecuted leaders of the losing side for the crimes they committed during the war. • War crimes- wartime acts of cruelty and brutality that are judged to be beyond the accepted rules of war and human behavior. • The trials took place in Nuremberg, Germany. • Allied judges tried the leaders of the Nazis that were directly connected to the genocide. • At the first trial twelve defendants were convicted and sentenced to death by hanging. • Later trials were held in Manila and Tokyo, Japan to prosecute the leaders of the Japan war machine.
Other Genocides • 1915-1918 & 1920-1923- The Armenian Genocide resulted in the deaths of up to 1.5 million Armenian deaths, about 500,000 Assyrian deaths, about 350,000 Anatolian Greek deaths, and the displacement of 8 million of the approximately 9 million Armenians. • 1975-1978-The Cambodian Genocide killed 25% of the country’s population in three years. Approximately 3,314, 768 people died. • 1992-1995- The Bosnian Genocide was the direct cause of over 100,000 civilian deaths. Hundreds of thousands more suffered from permanent mental and physical disabilities as well as effects from torture, homelessness, starvation, and forced detention. • Early April through mid-July of 1994 (100 Days)- The Rwandan Genocide killed 500,000 ethnic Tutsis and thousands of Tutsi sympathizers, moderate Hutus, and other victims. 800,000 to 1,000,000 people were killed and an additional 2,000,000 were crammed in to disease-filled refugee camps. • 2003- Present-Darfur Genocide has killed over 300,000 people and displaced more than 2.7 million
Bibliography Holocaust Concentration Camps Photo Gallery. A+E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 15 April 2013 http://www.history.com/topics/the-holocaust/photos# Final Rights. The Library of Congress. Web. 22 April 2013. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004672832 Nagasaki, Japan Under Atomic Bomb Attack. The Library of Congress. Web. 15 April 2013. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002722137/ Kamikaze Soldiers. Monster Worldwide. Web. 15 April 2013. http://images.military.com/pics/kamikaze.jpg Appleman, Roy E., Burns, James M., Gugeler, Russell A. , and Stevens, John. Okinawa: The Last Battle. US Army. 10 Jan. 2013 Web. 22 April 2013. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/okinawa/ Toledo Cousins, Navajo Indian Code Talkers, July 1943. US Navy. Web. 22 April 2013. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/miscnara/mn57875.jpg Synthetic Oil Plant At Zeitz, Germany Destroyed By Americans In Aerial Bombing Operations During World War Two. The Library of Congress. Web. 15 April 2013. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002722137/
Bibliography • FAQ. Bosnian Genocide Remembrance. Web. 23 April 2013. http://bosniangenocide.org/index.php/faq • Genocides and Conflicts. William Mitchell College of Law. Web. 23 April 2013. http://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts