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Chapter 24 Section 24.1. Noninfectious Diseases And Disorders. Section 24.1. Define noninfectious disease. Distinguish between hereditary and congenital diseases. List three factors that may cause congenital diseases. Noninfectious Disease.

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Chapter 24 section 24 1 l.jpg

Chapter 24Section 24.1

Noninfectious Diseases And Disorders

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Section 24.1

  • Define noninfectious disease.

  • Distinguish between hereditary and congenital diseases.

  • List three factors that may cause congenital diseases.

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Noninfectious Disease

  • A disease that a person cannot catch from another person or any other organism.

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Sickle cell anemia

Cystic fibrosis

Types Of Noninfectious Diseases

These are just a few examples!

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Hereditary Disease

  • A disease caused by defective genes inherited by a child from one or both parents.

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*Cell structures that carry hereditary information.


*A short part of DNA that serves as a code for a particular bit of hereditary information.

Chromosomes And Genes

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Sickle cell anemia

Cystic fibrosis

Tay-Sachs disease


Type II diabetes


Down’s syndrome

Muscular dystrophy

Types Of Hereditary Diseases

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Sickle Cell Anemia

  • When the genes carry incorrect information, this causes the red blood cells to become long and stiff instead of smooth and round.

  • This reduces the amount of oxygen that travels throughout the body, intense pain and/or organ failure is possible.

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Cystic Fibrosis

  • Most common among white Americans.

  • Results in very thick mucus in the lungs and digestive tract, which can block air passages inside the lungs.

  • Makes breathing very difficult, and increases the chance of lung infections.

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  • Caused by a defective gene that causes fat to accumulate in the brain.

  • Symptoms include: seizures, mental retardation, blindness and death by the age of 3 or 4.

  • Most common in families of eastern European origin.

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Muscular Dystrophy

  • Several genetic diseases that cause muscles to weaken and degenerate.

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Type I I Diabetes

  • Occurs when the hormone called insulin is lacking or is not used properly by the body.

  • Not enough to break down the sugar entering the body for energy.

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  • Effect about one out of every seven people in the united states.

  • Many reactions can occur.

  • Common substance: dust, pollen, pets, food, mold.

  • You can inherit a tendency to have allergies.

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  • Muscles overreact which causes the air ways to constrict and in turn air volume is restricted or cut-off.

  • Can be life threatening, more than 6000 people each year die.

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Down’s Syndrome

  • One in every 800 to 1000 babies born in the US have this disorder.

  • An extra chromosome in the body cells.

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Congenital Disease

  • A disease that is present from birth but is not inherited

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

Cerebral palsy


Types Of Congenital Diseases

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • Heavy drinking

  • Low birth weight

  • Mental retardation

  • Facial deformities

  • Heart defects

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Cerebral Palsy

  • Lack of O2 during birth.

  • Exposure to radiation or certain drugs.

  • Caused by damage to the brain.

  • Paralysis, unable to control muscles.

  • Difficult to walk or talk.

  • Many have normal intelligence.

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  • Caused by a head injury or tumor.

  • Electrical activity is abnormal for shorts periods of time.

  • Several different types.

    -Grand mal: thrashing.

    -Petit mal: black out.

    -Psychomotor: repeated movements.

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Chapter 24Section 24.2


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Section 24.2

  • List three common autoimmune diseases.

  • Explain the difference between autoimmune disease and AIDS.

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  • A disease in which a person’s own immune system attacks and damages an organ of his or her own body.

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  • Some organs in the body are not normally patrolled by the immune system.

  • Example: if the immune system comes into contact with thyroid cells it will attack them as if they were a foreign body.

  • Heart valve cells are similar to other bacterium.

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Multiple sclerosis

Rheumatic fever

Type I diabetes

Rheumatoid arthritis

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Graves’ disease

Types Of Autoimmune Diseases

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Multiple Sclerosis

  • Aka MS.

  • Attacks the fatty covering of nerves which protects the nerves.

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Type I Diabetes

  • Aka juvenile diabetes.

  • Attacks the cells of the pancreas with produce insulin.

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  • Attacks the membranes that line the spaces of the joints.

  • The joints may be destroyed or fused together.

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Hashimoto’s And Graves’ Disease

  • Both attack the thyroid gland.

  • Hashimoto’s destroys the gland and prevents the production the thyroid hormone.

  • Graves trick the gland into producing more.

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Degenerative Diseases24.3

Diseases that result from gradual damage to organs over time

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Cardiovascular disease



Types of Degenerative Disease

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Cardiovascular Disease

  • Atherosclerosis

  • High blood pressure

  • Heart attack

  • Stroke

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  • The most common cause of cardiovascular disease, it is the narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of fatty material. People with high cholesterol can develop this at an early age.

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High Blood Pressure

  • High blood pressure can damage the inner walls of the arteries and accelerate the process of atherosclerosis

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Heart Attack

  • When a coronary artery is blocked from atherosclerosis or a blood clot and no oxygen is received by part of the heart muscle. That part of the heart dies.

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  • When a region of the brain is cut off from its blood supply, also from blocked vessels.

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  • A disease caused by cells that have lost normal growth controls and that invade and destroy other tissues

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Cancer Facts

  • Second leading cause of death in the united states

  • Cancers cells form a mass called a tumor. A benign tumor does not invade surrounding tissue, a malignant tumor spreads

  • Early detection of cancer can make it completely curable

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Seven Warning Signs for Cancer(CAUTION)

  • Change in bowel or bladder habits

  • A sore that does not heal

  • Unusual bleeding or discharge

  • Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere

  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

  • Obvious change in wart or mole

  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

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  • Caused by wear and tear on joints over time. Very common among the elderly

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Factors you can not control




Factors you can control

Poor diet

High blood pressure

Lack of exercise


Drinking alcohol

Risk Factors for Degenerative Disease