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Warm Up Opener!. Quietly answer the following on a piece of paper for turn in: Why did the U.S. invade Iraq in 2003? Why is the U.S. still occupying Iraq in 2011? Who is the U.S. fighting in Iraq? What is Foreign Policy? What is the “Arab Spring” that is going on now?. Rest of the Year….

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warm up opener
Warm Up Opener!
  • Quietly answer the following on a piece of paper for turn in:
    • Why did the U.S. invade Iraq in 2003?
    • Why is the U.S. still occupying Iraq in 2011?
    • Who is the U.S. fighting in Iraq?
    • What is Foreign Policy?
    • What is the “Arab Spring” that is going on now?
rest of the year
Rest of the Year…
  • Regional Conflict in Iraq
  • Arab Spring Uprisings in the Middle East
  • Final Exam (Tentative June 7)
    • Conflict in Iraq
    • Arab Spring Uprisings
    • Vocabulary
    • Map of Middle East and Central Asia
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Thursday May 19, 2011
  • President Obama addressed the nation in a lengthy speech outlining U.S. Foreign Policy towards the Middle East
  • What is Foreign Policy?

Obama’s Full Speech

foreign policy1
Foreign Policy
  • How we interact with other nations to meet our national interests through diplomacy.
  • We have a different foreign policy for every country in the world, and some we have multiple policies toward.
u s and israel
U.S. and Israel
  • May 20, 2011
  • U.S. President Barack Obama and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met to discuss U.S. and Israel foreign policy.
  • Why is Israel so important?

President Obama is calling for Israel to return to its 1967 borders

Full Story

israel
Israel
  • U.S. has supported Israel as its firmest ally since 1948
  • Israel has stood against U.S. opposition in the region
  • Shares intelligence with the U.S.
  • Israeli occupation of the West Bank violates international law
  • Fundamental human rights of Palestinians are violated daily
  • Only Jordan and Egypt politically recognize Israel from all Middle East countries
  • Israel is the largest recipient of U.S Foreign Aid
september 11 2001
September 11, 2001
  • An Extremist Islamic group called al-Qaeda attacked the World Trade Center
  • Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda’s leader, called on Muslims worldwide to wage a Jihad against the U.S. and its citizens
  • Bin Laden believes that U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East for the past 60 years equaled a declaration of war on Muslims
  • Did U.S. foreign policy give al-Qaeda cause to attack the U.S.?
  • al-Qaeda is currently energizing their Jihad against America after the death of Osama bin Laden
u s foreign policy response options
U.S. Foreign Policy Response Options
  • Use Military Force
  • Use Economic Sanctions to Discourage Undesirable Behavior
  • Officially Criticize Actions
  • Ignore the Actions
  • Support with Military Aid
  • Support with Economic and Humanitarian Aid (Foreign Aid)
  • Other Response
foreign policy in iraq
Foreign Policy in Iraq
  • Today we are at war in Iraq.
    • Who are we at war with?
    • Why are we in Iraq?
    • How did foreign policy determine our actions?
  • Goal: Understand events leading to the U.S. Invasion by examining 10 key events
  • Directions:
    • Read each situation in order
    • Write down year and name of situation
    • Predict the foreign policy response you think the U.S. does, and write it down in detail
sunni v shia islam
Sunni v. Shia Islam

Sunni Islam

  • 80-90% of all Muslims
  • Believe that the 1st four Caliphs, as chosen by the Ummah(global Muslim community), are the rightful successors of Muhammad
  • Open to choosing caliphs among the Ummah
  • Not concerned with bloodline succession
  • Concerned with tradition
  • Sunnis are encouraged to follow the example of Muhammad’s actions in their daily life

Shia Islam

  • 10-20% of all Muslims
  • Believe that the 4th Caliph, Muhammad’s cousin, is the only rightful successor of Muhammad and is the first Imam
  • Imams rule by divine appointment and holds absolute spiritual authority
  • Shi’ite Imams interpret Muhammad’s teachings
  • Strongly concerned with the succession of Imams among bloodlines
vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review
  • Coalition
    • A combination or alliance, especially a temporary one between persons, factions, states, etc.
  • Collateral Damage
    • The killing of civilians in a military attack.
  • Foreign Aid
    • Economic, technical, humanitarian, or military aid given by one nation to another for purposes of relief and rehabilitation, for economic stabilization, or for mutual defense.
vocabulary review1
Vocabulary Review
  • Foreign Policy
    • How we interact with other nations to meet our national interests through diplomacy.
  • Infrastructure
    • The fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
  • Military Aid
    • Money or weapons which are used to assist an ally in its defense efforts, or to assist a poor country in maintaining control over its own territory
vocabulary review2
Vocabulary Review
  • Sanction (Economic)
    • Restrictions upon international trade and finance that one country imposes on another for political reasons.
  • Sectarian
    • Narrowly confined or devoted to a particular sector religion.
  • Secular
    • Of or pertaining to worldly things or to things that are not regarded as religious, spiritual, or sacred; temporal.
current u s interests in middle east
Current U.S. Interests in Middle East
  • Military power
  • Political and economic influence
  • Persian Gulf oil
  • Regional Security (Israel and other allies)
regional security
Regional Security
  • After the first Persian Gulf War the U.S. has attempted to:
  • Contain Iraq
  • Contain Iran
  • Remove the potential of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
  • Defend against retaliation from the Middle East (called terrorism)
slide23
Iraq
  • After the first Persian Gulf War (1991), the U.S. decided not to overthrown Saddam Hussein
  • Turkey and other countries thought that the disintegration of Iraq would destabilize the entire region
sanctions against iraq
Sanctions against Iraq
  • U.S. and the U.N. decided to impose economic sanctions to limit Hussein’s ability to rebuild Iraq
  • Iraq was limited in who it could trade with for equipment relating to sanitation, water purification, and medical services
  • Thousands of Iraqis died each month because of these sanctions
iraqi weapons of mass destruction
Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Cease-fire agreement of the first Persian Gulf War allowed the U.N. to conduct regular inspections for nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons
  • The U.N. destroyed large stockpiles of biological and chemical weapons in the 1990s
  • Iraq refused inspector entrance in 1998, and was met with British and U.S. air strikes
  • Iraq allowed U.N. inspectors back in 2002, and they still haven’t found any weapons of mass destruction
slide26
Iran
  • U.S. believes that Iran has a program established that will eventually lead to nuclear technology
  • Yesterday the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff reported that Iran as enough low-grade uranium to build a weapon.
  • Iran denies the claim.
  • Nuclear technology cannot be distinguished from power and military uses
  • Iran started uranium enrichment in 2006
u s attitudes towards iran
U.S. Attitudes Towards Iran
  • Some Iranians are leading sponsors of terrorist organizations Hezbolah and Hamas
  • Support of Shiite Muslims in Iraq fuels sectarian violence
  • Suspect multiple human rights violations
  • Since 1995 U.S. prohibits Americans from officially investing in Iran or trading with it
  • Rest of the U.N. still trades with Iran
libya
Libya
  • was suspected in sponsoring the terrorist 2003 Libya allows U.S. weapons inspectors in
  • U.S. and Libya are restoring diplomatic relations that have been silent since 1981
  • Libya bombing of Pam Am flight 103 in 1988
  • Libya turned over bombing suspects in 1999 and paid compensation in 2003
  • Sanctions, military threats, and incentives seem to have been successful foreign policy towards Libya
  • Today Libya is in civil war with NATO aiding the rebellion forces to help topple the current regime
egypt
Egypt
  • After 1979 Camp David Accords Egypt became 2nd largest receiver of U.S. foreign aid
  • U.S. supports Egypt because of its secular government and stability it brings to the region
  • Egypt recognizes Israel
  • Egypt’s president Hosni Mubarak was recently forced to resign
jordan
Jordan
  • U.S. has good political relations with Jordan
  • Since 1994 Jordan has been taking steps to move towards full democracy, but it not there yet
  • Jordan recognizes Israel
saudi arabia
Saudi Arabia
  • U.S. has tactically built a relationship with Saudi Arabia since the 1940s
  • Saudi Arabia is the center of the world’s oil industry
  • Undemocratic, Islamic regime
  • Women cannot vote or drive
  • Funding for terrorism flows from Saudi Arabia
  • U.S. supports Saudi Arabia because of its secure trade in oil with the country
turkey
Turkey
  • Most westernized Middle East country
  • Staunch supporter of U.S. and important NATO member
  • Represses over 12 million Kurds with human rights violations daily
  • Former Secretary of State Rice made numerous visits to Turkey lately regarding regional security and a prospective Kurdistan break