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Introduction to Management Information Systems Chapter 6 System Development . HTM 304 Spring 06. What Systems to be developed. Many different types of systems in the organization. Integrated Systems (e.g. ERP, etc). Inter –Organizational Information Systems (B2B, SRM, etc.). Other

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introduction to management information systems chapter 6 system development

Introduction to Management Information SystemsChapter 6 System Development

HTM 304

Spring 06

what systems to be developed
What Systems to be developed
  • Many different types of systems in the organization

Integrated Systems

(e.g. ERP, etc)

Inter –Organizational

Information Systems

(B2B, SRM, etc.)










IT Infrastructure

system development fundamentals
System Development Fundamentals
  • System Development – a process for creating and maintaining information systems (IS)

-- Also called System Analysis and Design (Dr. Fang & Kumar, Summer 2007)

  • Developing an IS involves all 5 components:
personnel involved
Personnel Involved

Constant interaction between Users (MIS, HTM 304) and IT professionals (System Analysis & Design, HTM 425)

think big about system development
Think Big About System Development
  • Many students are new to the systems development process due to working with personal computer tools.
  • The scope of work is large with large-scale corporate information systems and may be global with different languages and cultures.
  • Management of resources is a critical success factor.
  • Comprehensive processes are required for project staff to follow and adhere to in order to successfully meet project and systems objectives.
think big cont
Think Big (cont)
  • Three software sources
    • Off-the-shelf
    • Off-the shelf-with adaptation
    • Tailor-made
  • Major IS rarely off-the-shelf due to involvement of company people and resources
system development is challenging
System Development Is Challenging
  • Systems development difficult and risky
  • Many projects never finished
  • Some projects finish 200-300% over budget
  • Some projects finish on schedule and within budget but don’t meet the goals
system development challenges
System Development Challenges
  • Difficulties in determining requirements
  • Changes in requirements
  • Scheduling and budgeting difficulties
  • Changing technology
  • Diseconomies of scale
systems development methodologies
Systems Development Methodologies
  • There are many different system development processes
    • System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    • Object-oriented System Development (OOD)
    • Extreme Programming (XP)
  • Information Systems Differ
  • No single process works for all situations
system definition phase tasks
System Definition Phase Tasks
  • Define project
    • Goals and objectives
    • Scope – statement of work
  • Assess feasibility
    • Cost (budget)
    • Schedule
    • Technical
    • Organizational feasibility
  • Form a project team
    • Project manager
    • In-house IT staff
    • Outside consultants and staff (as needed)
    • User representatives (management and staff)
requirement analysis phase tasks
Requirement Analysis Phase Tasks
  • The most important phase in the system development process is determining system requirements.
  • If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong.
  • If the requirements are determined completely and correctly, then the design and implementation will be easier and more likely to result in success.
  • Seasoned and experienced system analysts know

how to conduct interviews to bring such

requirements to light.

obtain user approval before you move on
Obtain User Approval Before You Move-on
  • Once the requirements have been specified, the users must review and approve them before the project continues.
  • The easiest and cheapest time to alter the information system is in the requirements phase.
  • Changing a requirement in the implementation phase may require weeks of reworking applications components and the database.
component design phase18
Component Design Phase
  • Each of the five components is designed in this stage.
  • The team designs each of the five components by developing a list of alternatives.
  • Each alternative is evaluated against the requirements.
  • Typically the best alternative that meets the requirements is selected.
hardware design
Hardware Design
  • Team determines specifications for hardware they want to acquire
  • Team NOT designing hardware
  • Typically, large company has some type of computer network infrastructure
hardware networking alternatives
Hardware Networking Alternatives
  • PC or LANs over public Internet
  • Point-to-point leased lines
  • Lease time on some type of PSDN
  • Create Virtual Private Network (VPN) over Internet
program design
Program Design
  • Depends on program source
  • Off-the-shelf – team must assess products and evaluate them against requirements
  • Off-the-shelf with alteration - team IDs products and assesses alterations
  • Custom-design programs – team write specifications

(documentation) for program code

database and procedure design
Database and Procedure Design
  • Database design
    • Convert database design to data model
    • If off-the-shelf DB, little design needed
  • Procedure design
    • Procedures must be developed for system users and operations personnel to follow
    • Procedures typically address
      • Normal processing: procedures for using the system to accomplish business tasks
      • Backup: user procedures for backing up data and other resources
      • Failure recovery: Procedure to continue operation when system fails and procedures to convert back to the system after recovery
people component design of job descriptions
People Component -- Design of Job Descriptions
  • Job descriptions needed for both users and operations personnel
  • New IS may require new jobs
  • Organizations may have to add new duties and responsibilities due to information systems changes and enhancements
system conversion
System Conversion

4 ways to implement system conversion

  • Pilot – Implement entire system on limited portion of the business
  • Phased- New system installed in pieces across organization
  • Parallel – New system runs in parallel with old system for a while
  • Plunge – Old system turned off and new system turned on immediately
information system maintenance
Information System Maintenance
  • Either fixing system to make it do

what is expected

  • Or adapting system to changing requirement
problems with sdlc
Problems with SDLC
  • The most formal procedure to develop large IS project
    • Systems development seldom smooth
    • Sometimes need to crawl back up waterfall
    • Difficulty documenting requirements in usable way
    • Scheduling and budgeting difficult, especially for large projects with large SDLC phases
review of sdlc
Review of SDLC
  • What are the five phases?
  • Which phase is the most important?
  • Briefly describe the five phases.
other developing methods
Other Developing Methods
  • Rapid application development (RAD)
  • Object-oriented systems development (OOD)
  • Extreme programming (XP)

Basic idea - break up design and implementation phases of SDLC into smaller pieces

Use iterative process – build a piece of the system, test it and then make it better

Get user input with every iteration

- You are always involved.

rad extensive use of prototypes
RAD – Extensive Use of Prototypes
  • Extensive use of prototypes
    • A mock-up of aspect of new system and could be:

-- Form -- Report

-- Database Query --User Interfaces

case tools
CASE Tools
  • CASE: Computer-assisted systems engineering
summary of rad characteristics
Summary of RAD Characteristics
  • Design / implement / fix development process
  • Continuous user involvement throughout
  • Extensive use of prototypes
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Use of CASE Tools
object oriented systems development ood
Object-Oriented Systems Development (OOD)
  • Began after RAD – mid 1990s
  • Driven by new program development method – Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)
  • A series of diagramming techniques called Unified Modeling Language (UML) facilitates OOP development.


Unified Process


extreme programming
Extreme Programming
  • Emerging Technique Developing Computer Programs
  • Not useful for large scale development system requiring business processes & procedures (or at least not yet realized)
  • There are cases where organizations have used it successfully in developing application programs.
  • Three main characteristics
    • Customer-Centric
    • Just-In-Time (JIT) Design
    • Paired Programming