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Introduction to Management Information Systems BUS 3620

Introduction to Management Information Systems BUS 3620

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Introduction to Management Information Systems BUS 3620

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  1. Introduction to Management Information Systems BUS 3620 Why should you study information systems? How can individuals make better use of technology? How does an organization use information systems? What makes up an information system? What are some career opportunities? What are some ethical challenges? Gerhard Steinke

  2. Core Drivers • Data- Raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event or object (07071991) • Information - Data converted into a meaningful and useful context (student birthdate) • Knowledge- Skills, experience, and expertise coupled with information and intelligence that creates intellectual resources…wisdom (graduate student) • Knowledge worker – Individual valued for their ability to interpret and analyze information

  3. Business Intelligence (BI) / Big Data • Business intelligence - Information collected from within the organization and from sources such as suppliers, customers, competitors, partners,…to find patterns, trends, and relationships for strategic decision making http://www.oracle.com/us/solutions/business-analytics/business-intelligence/overview/index.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7T1iuCNMN1g&index=2&list=PL6gBNP-Fr8KUOyTKNXUHXj1scFmZ_DwRK • Big Data - collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using current database management tools... The challenges include capture, curation, storage, search, sharing, transfer, analysis,and visualization. (Wikipedia!) http://www.ibm.com/big-data/us/en/ • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2D8oji5EKbM

  4. IS High Level Titles Roles and Responsibilities • Chief information officer (CIO) – Oversees all uses of IT and ensures the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives • Chief technology officer (CTO) – Responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of IT • Chief security officer (CSO) – Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems • Chief privacy officer (CPO) – Responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information

  5. Positive outlook New Applications New Technologies Outsourcing concerns Shortage of qualified workers http://www.careerbuilder.com/jobs/category/information-technology/ http://money.usnews.com/careers/best-jobs/rankings/best-technology-jobs Career Opportunities in IS

  6. Five Competitive Strategies:Can you use IT in each area? • Cost Leadership • Become low-cost producers • Help suppliers or customers reduce costs • Differentiation Strategy • Develop ways to differentiate a firm’s products from its competitors • Innovation Strategy • Find new ways of doing business -unique products, services, markets • Growth Strategy • Expand company’s capacity to produce, expand into global markets • Alliance Strategy • Establish linkages and alliances with customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and other companies

  7. The Competitive Advantage of IT Does IT Matter? • No: • Nicholas Carr argues that IT is infrastructure like electricity • Too commonplace to get competitive advantage • Yes: • IT is not just networks and computers • The important part is the software and information and how IT is used • Compare different websites…

  8. Infrastructure - Computer Hardware Gerhard Steinke History of computers Types of computer systems Hardware components and functions Bits and bytes Selection criteria

  9. Categories of Computers • Super Computers http://www.top500.org/ • Mainframes (with dumb terminals) • Servers - Virtual Servers • Microcomputers / Desktop / Laptop • 1979, Apple computer • 1982, IBM PC • Handheld • Smart Phone / Tablet • Wearableshttp://www.amazon.com/b?node=10048700011

  10. Computer Hardware Functions • Input • Keyboard, mouse, optical scanner, touch screen, pen-based, speech recognition, optical character recognition (OCR), magnetic strips, card reader, digital camera, magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) • Processing http://www.bestbuy.com/site/dell-inspiron-desktop-8gb-memory-1tb-hard-drive-black/9405441.p?id=1219703860754&skuId=9405441 • Output • Monitor, printer, voice response system, signal

  11. Computer Storage RAM Solid State Drive Flash Drive Hard drive (RAID) CD,DVD Tape http://www.bestbuy.com/site/buying-guides/drives-storage-buying-guide/pcmcat337000050001.c?id=pcmcat337000050001&type=category#internal

  12. Computer Processing Speeds • Millisecond – thousandth of a second • Microsecond – millionth of a second • Nanosecond – billionth of a second • Clock speed of the computer: • Megahertz (MHz) – millions of cycles per second • Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of cycles per second

  13. Moore’s Law - Computer power will double every 18 to 24 months

  14. Bits and Bytes • Bit - Either zero or one • Byte - Group of eight bits - one character

  15. Measuring Storage Capacities • Kilobyte (KB): 1024 bytes (210) • Megabyte (MB): one million bytes (220) • Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes (230) • Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes (240) • Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes (250) • Exabyte (EB): 260 bytes • Zettabyte (ZB): 270 bytes • http://www.computerhope.com/issues/chspace.htm

  16. Radio Frequency Identification - RFID • Tag and identify mobile objects • E.g., merchandise, packages, pets • Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals • Chips half the size of a grain of sand • Passive chips: • do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader • Active chips: • Self-powered • http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/rfid-tag-sample-pack-uhf-passive/?gclid=CKuKra_61cQCFZGTfgodaoIARQ

  17. Cloud Computing

  18. buy/lease quality support, warranty performance cost reliability footprint compatibility upgradeability technology ergonomics environmental requirements Software Ethical Issues Hardware Evaluation

  19. Business Continuity /Disaster Recovery • http://www.disasterrecovery.org/ • http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/disaster-recovery • http://www.computerworld.com/category/disaster-recovery • http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/How-to-write-a-disaster-recovery-plan-and-define-disaster-recovery-strategies • https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CD4QFjAFahUKEwjpq4aY7p_IAhUDppQKHQXPAeo&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.purdue.edu%2Fsecurepurdue%2Fdocs%2Ftraining%2FBusinessContinuityPlanning.ppt&usg=AFQjCNEAJLkDogOM_XQGCk3IjXQFrt8YRg

  20. Infrastructure – Computer SoftwareGerhard Steinke Application Software Systems Software - Operating Systems Programming Languages Software Trends Impact on Organizations

  21. Application Software • Word Processing • Desktop Publishing • Presentation • Spreadsheet • DBMS • Graphics • Email (Outlook, Exchange) • Instant messaging (IM) • Educational • Mobile apps • Project Management • Accounting • Mapping - GIS • CAD/CAM • Groupware • Scheduling • Tax • Blog • Games • Web/Mobile apps

  22. System Software: - Operating System software • Programs that • Manage the operations of the computer • Control the input/output, storage resources and activities of the computer system

  23. Popular Operating Systems • Microsoft • Windows XP, 7, Windows 8, 10 • https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/features • Apple • iPhone 6 – iOS 9 • http://www.apple.com/support/ios9/ • MAC OS X – El Capitan • http://www.apple.com/osx/ • Unix, Linux • Can run on mainframes, servers and PCs • Open-source • Android 6.0 Marshmallow • https://www.android.com/

  24. Programming Languageshttps://www.udemy.com/blog/best-programming-language/ • Python • Java • C++ • C • C# • PHP • Ruby • Basic • Cobol • Fortran • HTML

  25. Software Classifications • Custom software • Software applications that are developed for use by an organization • COTS software - Commercial Off-the-shelf (COTS) • Software developed with the intention of selling the software in multiple copies • Apps • Thousands available, e.g., https://itunes.apple.com/us/genre/ios/id36?mt=8 • https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/apps-and-games • Application service providers (ASPs) • Companies that own, operate and maintain application software • Pay-as-you-go

  26. Software Trends • Custom designed to COTS (Commercial off the Shelf) • Individual applications to bundled (suites) • Text to Graphical User Interfaces / wizards • From machine dependent to machine independent • to Web-based Interface – Browsers • E.g., Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Mozilla, Safari, Chrome, Microsoft E____ • Web/Mobile apps

  27. What do you need to know? • Create software or just use software? • Select software to match needs • Integrate software into organization • Software licensing • Software quality – testing concerns • Purchase/lease software? Warranty? • How does software influence organization? • Possibilities • Constraints • Cost – new, upgrade, maintenance

  28. Software Ethical Issues • Copying software, piracy • New versions all the time • Software that does more than you expect • http://www.eggheaven.com/eggs/software/137-excel • Quality - Expectation/toleration of software bugs and errors? • http://www.king5.com/story/news/local/2015/12/22/3200-wa-prisoners-incorrectly-released-early-since-2002/77764040/ • How long should software be supported? • Who should test software?

  29. 4 Data ManagementGerhard Steinke Data Concepts, Requirements Database Management Types of Databases Data Warehouse, Data Mining

  30. What do we Need from Data/Information? • Accuracy • Reliability • Consistency • Security • Availability • Single source • Reduced data redundancy • Web accessible

  31. Single User databases Microsoft Access Client/Server, Multi-user Oracle Microsoft SQL Server IBM DB2 Open-source MySQL Database Management Approach

  32. Fundamental Data Components • Character • Field • Represents an attribute (a characteristic or quality) of some entity (object, person, place or event) • Record • Key field • Table • Database • Database Management System – DBMS • Interface between user and data

  33. Access Example • Tables • define field characteristics, primary key • Relationships • showing connections between tables • Check for referential Integrity …an entry must exist in a different table? • Forms • used to enter data • Reports • used to present data • Query • Selection of the data (sequence may be important)

  34. Queries –SQL Language, Graphical

  35. Data Warehouse • Stores data that has been extracted from operational, external and other databases • Data has been cleaned, transformed and cataloged • Used by managers and professionals for • Data mining, • Online analytical processing, • Business analysis, • Market research, • Decision support • Data mart is subset of warehouse for specific use of department

  36. Data Mining • Data in data warehouse is analyzed to reveal hidden patterns and trends Examples: • Perform market-basket analysis to identify new business opportunities / processes • Find root causes to quality problems • Cross sell to existing customers • Profile customers with more accuracy

  37. Data Resource Management • Data Administrator - Managerial activity • Database Administrator (DBA) – more technical, database setup • Data Issues: • Value of data • Challenge of managing data • Data collecting • Data storage • Data privacy • Data security • Data mining • Data owner • Web-based access

  38. Telecommunications & NetworksGerhard Steinke Identify trends in telecommunication networks. Identify basic components, functions and types of networks. Examine network management issues.

  39. We Live in a Networked World… • Telecommunications: The exchange of information over networks • Why? • Share data - Between computers: Email, file-sharing, backup • Share peripheral devices – Printers, storage • Local (LAN) • Wide Area Networks (WAN) • Internet Server Mainframe Laptop Communications Services Communications Products WAN Local Manager Work Station Server POS Clients Networked Workgroups BUS 3620

  40. Internet Provider (ISP) Network Components Wireless Access Point Firewall Router Switch Hub Hub Switch Clients Repeater Network Interface Card (NIC) BUS 3620

  41. Physical Transmission Media • Twisted Pair - similar to phone wire • Fiber Optics • glass/plastic fiber • using light • greater bandwidth • lower attenuation - greater repeater spacing BUS 3620

  42. Wireless Transmission Media • Satellite – microwave signals • HEO - 22,000 mi. up, LEO - 500 mi. up • Cellular – radio signals to cell towers • Wireless – IEEE 802.11b,a,g,n,… • Speeds to 54 Mbps or more • Bluetooth • Microwave – line of sight BUS 3620

  43. Wireless Technology Advantages Disadvantages • Don’t need cabling • Good for • mobility • historical buildings • manufacturing environments • real time inventory • hand held devices • Lower speeds • Higher cost • Security? BUS 3620

  44. Client/Server Networks • Some computers are servers – usually more powerful, expensive,… • Single point of failure – server is down… • Need administrator, account management,… • Purpose: Email, Database, File, Print, Application, Web servers,… • The rest are clients can be smaller and/or slower BUS 3620

  45. Network Management Tasks • Manage user accounts • Manage performance • Assigning priorities • Detecting and correcting errors • Installing cables, wireless access points • Traffic, security, capacity planning,… • Often responsible for hardware including routers, switches, firewalls…maybe even servers and storage BUS 3620

  46. Data Management Asset Management Administration Integrated Control Planning & Scheduling Problem Management Network Management Model • Backup & Restore • Media Control & Storage • Data Management • Data Collection • Remote Store Mgmt. • Security Administration • User/Group Administration • Network Configuration • System Config. • Software Licensing • Distribution & Control • Employee Profile • Resource Accounting • Charge back Services • Inventory Control • Fault Reporting • Problem Escalation • Resolution Assessment • Help Desk Facilities • Workload Scheduling • Performance Monitoring • Performance Analysis • Capacity Planning BUS 3620

  47. ISP / VoIP • ISP - Internet Service Provider • A company that provides access to the Internet • For a monthly fee you get internet access • ISPs are connected to one another • http://www.highspeedinternet.com/wa/seattle?zip=98119 • Speed http://speedtest.comcast.net/ • Net neutrality issue… • VoIP - Voice over IP • Using an Internet connection to pass voice data (telephone calls) using the internet • E.g., Skype, … • http://www.voip-info.org/ BUS 3620

  48. Telecommunication Trends • Wireless, mobile • Cloud Computing • GPS - Location based • IoT – Internet of Things • Everything connected? • Always connected? • Net neutrality • … Information overload!? BUS 3620