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Active Pixels for a new Inner Vertex Detector for STAR

Active Pixels for a new Inner Vertex Detector for STAR

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Active Pixels for a new Inner Vertex Detector for STAR

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  1. Active Pixels for a new Inner Vertex Detector for STAR H. Wieman, F. Bieser, S. Kleinfelder, H. Matis, P. Nevski, N. Smirnoff, G. Rai and F. Retiere 6-June-01

  2. Outline • D mesons, motivation for an additional inner vertex detector at STAR • Active Pixel Sensor (APS) concept under consideration • R&D effort

  3. The STAR detector at RHIC • Inner micro-vertex detector for inside SVT

  4. Motivation for an inner tracker • Measure D mesons, charm quark production • Emphasized in the long range plan for STAR • Window to early hot parton phase • Large mass, c quarks less less likely from later mixed phase and hadron phase • More restrictive than measure of strange quark production • Augments measurements of multi-strange particles, - • Calibration of J/ suppression

  5. Technical Challenge of D mesons • Topological separation of D vertex from primary vertex with thousands of tracks • D+K-+ + 8% c = 320 m • D0  K- + 3.65% c = 125.9 m • Require microscopic vertex resolution • minimum coulomb scattering • Minimum distance to interaction to improve pointing resolution • Therefore need excellent two track resolution • excellent position resolution

  6. CCD - VXD3 at SLACa model for our approach • Very thin, 0.4% radiation length • High resolution • pixels - 20 m cubes • surface resolution < 4 m • projected impact parameter resolution 11 m • Close to beam, inner layer at 2.8 cm radius • 307 million pixels, < 1 cent/pixel

  7. VXD3 almost the solution • Limitations • Slow readout – 200 ms • Radiation hardness may be a problem in the RHIC environment. 2 kRad per year • Investigating use of thinned Active Pixel Sensors (APS) in CMOS in place of CCDs • CMOS design freedom should allow faster readout solution • APS will have better radiation hardness since unlike CCDs does not need long charge transport path through silicon.

  8. Active Pixel Sensor (APS) • 20 m square pixels • 5 chips per slat • 90 million pixels • 40 m thick chips • 760 m Be beam pipe 5.6 cm 8 cm

  9. Can D0 be resolved? • Preliminary analysis, K-+ channel • Multiple and single coulomb scattering (full Molière) • Impact parameter cut > 100 m from primary vertex • p  700 MeV/c • 760 m Be beam pipe 2.2 cm radius • 40 m inner Si layer at 2.8 cm radius

  10. Isolating the primary vertex simulation gaussian fit 100 m exclusion cut xy projection (m) Simulated pointing resolution of the Micro-vertex detector

  11. Invariant mass reconstruction of D0s k (preliminary simulation) D0 • 250,000 events • 5 D0s in –1<<+1 • Would need 6X106 if 1 D0 • This is 2 weeks running M (GeV)

  12. Operating in the RHIC environment • Very central collision dN/d = 700 • Resulting hit density on inner vertex: 14 hits/cm2 • Fraction of pixels filled in a single central event at the inner radius = 0.05%

  13. tracking in cone of uncertainty SVT real hits pileup hits inner vertex detector pileup causing false rejection primary vertex rejection cut False rejection by pileup • design luminosity, 200 ms readout • 400 hits/cm2 • 1.4% pixels filled • false rejection 0.5% • 10 X design luminosity, 200 ms readout • 4000 hits/cm2 • 13% pixels filled • false rejection 11%

  14. Inner Vertex Detector Requirements • Most Critical • Must be thin < 0.2% X0 • Must be low power < 100 mW/cm2, gas cooling to be thin • Must be minimum distance from beam, excellent two track resolution • Must survive 1 year, 2 kRad • Desirable • Readout fast enough to keep up with other detector read out, 10 ms now, less later • No interest • Use in a trigger is not being considered

  15. R&D effort focusing on APS in CMOS • Can be thinned like CCDs • Better radiation hardness (TSMC 0.25 m CMOS is good to 40 MRad) • Potentially faster readout and lower power since zero suppression can be done on the detector chip • Design freedom with standard industry process • LEPSI demonstrated technology with minimum ionizing particles • No CMOS APS detectors operating in an experiment • MIP detection depends on a feature of the CMOS process that could disappear

  16. Electronics R&D plan • Copy LEPSI style APS • Using what is learned from the copy investigate possible readout schemes for power and speed • Possible directions: full fast data read vs on chip zero suppression Next a look at the LEPSI MIMOSA APS design

  17. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for Charged Particle Tracking and Imaging using Standard VLSI CMOS TechnologyJ.D. Berst et al.LEPSI, Strasbourg • LEPSI APS • 20 m square pixels • 64X64 array • MIMOSA 1, 0.6 m CMOS • MIMOSA 2, 0.35 m CMOS

  18. MIMOSA CHIP by LEPSI

  19. Properties

  20. MIMOSA Readout and noise reduction • Read out all pixels, 12 bit ADC • MIMOSA I at 2.5 MHz • MIMOSA II at 10 MHz • Correlated Double Sample (CDS) offline to remove Reset thermal (kTC) and Fixed Pattern noise • Average baseline subtraction to remove leakage current pedestal

  21. Performance

  22. APS development by Stuart Kleinfelder • Previous experience • SCA for EOS, NA49 and STAR • ATWD for Amanda and KamLAND, 1 GHz FADC - for just milliwatts of power • 10,000 Frame/sec video chip (thesis project) • 1st step – reproduce LEPSI results 10,000 fps, every 4th frame displayed propeller speed ~ 2000 rpm

  23. 128X128 pixels 0.25 m CMOS 2.5 volt TSMC through MOSIS 4 styles row selection shift register column selection shift register n well collection nodes First chip submission S. Kleinfelder

  24. SK chip design Cg • 4 pixel styles • Added FET acts as • Sample and hold (off or on) or • Capacitance isolator (TX held constant at intermediate voltage) Vsg Cd capacitance isolator Cg Cd Vsg drops to Vthreshold and any additional charge spills to drain (Cg). Only Cg is reset Copy of MIMOSA style

  25. Status of our LEPSI copy • We have chips back from MOSIS • Howard Matis has first version of DAQ ready for testing • Fred Bieser is programming the readout board which is back ready for stuffing • We will test with sources and in ALS electron beam

  26. Readout options depend on chip performance • If the following noise sources are low compared to the signal then simple threshold zero suppression can be used • reset kTC noise (thermal) • reset fixed pattern noise • diode leakage current • Expected MIP signal 640 e • Expected reset kTC noise: 30 to 40 • Expected reset fixed pattern ? • Diode leakage current 0.25 fA to 29 fA

  27. APS Readout with Zero Suppression if noise permits • Readout of each row followed by threshold discrimination and zero suppression in columns. • No additional logic in pixels. • Minimal periphery in one dimension allows close abutting. S. Kleinfelder

  28. Zero suppression if only reset fixed pattern noise is a problem • When a trigger occurs a CDS is done with a reset between samples. This removes reset fixed pattern noise, but not reset kTC noise. • Reset is done one row at a time. Could have a separate readout on each column.

  29. Zero suppression if large pixel to pixel variation and large reset noise (the heroic solution) • Full independent CDS on each pixel before doing threshold check • Do by continuous digitization and store into on chip dynamic RAM in a few ms for all pixels • On trigger digitize and subtract memory value to obtain CDS for threshold check • Dynamic RAM only 1/10 pixel area • Need power analysis, but experience suggests 100 mW/cm2 limit possible

  30. Alternative readout mode • Full pixel readout - continuous • 20 – 40 ms per read (slower than other detector readouts) • Off chip correlated double sampling • Chip design may be simpler, but enhancements required like column parallel operations etc. • Complicated DAQ and data processing • Filled pixels still < 3% at 10 X design luminosity • Should be able to stay in 100 mW/cm2 power budget

  31. Mechanical Possibilities beyond VXD3 ? VXD3 Ladder

  32. Development tasks • Simulations (H. Matis, N. Smirnoff, P. Nevski) • Test new chip (S. Kleinfelder, H. Matis, F. Bieser, F. Retiere) • Explore readout options (S. Kleinfelder) • Develop mechanical supports and interconnects

  33. Conclusion • New challenging technology with unknowns • Significant potential gains • Important for STAR Long Range Plan • Could benefit other RHIC experiments and heavy ion program at LHC • ~Cost 3.25 M$ • ~Time 3-4 years

  34. APS Readout S. Kleinfelder