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Wireless Generations 1G, 2G & 3G Syed Azhar Hussain 99-CE-282. Outline. Cellular Network Concept First Generation AMPS Second Generation Cellular Access Technologies FDMA, TDMA, CDMA GSM Third Generation UMTS. Cell Concept. Cell phone is basically a radio

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outline
Outline
  • Cellular Network Concept
  • First Generation
    • AMPS
  • Second Generation
    • Cellular Access Technologies
      • FDMA, TDMA, CDMA
    • GSM
  • Third Generation
    • UMTS
cell concept
Cell Concept
  • Cell phone is basically a radio
  • Combination of telephone (Alexander Graham Bell) and wireless communications (Guglielmo Marconi)
  • Originally used powerful radio telephones
    • Problems
      • Needed to be very powerful
      • Not many distinct frequencies (50)
  • Finally split cities into cells to allow cell reuse and reduce the required power – the cell concept
    • Each cell has a tower
    • About 800 frequencies across a cell
    • Size of cell is about 10 sq. miles
slide4

Basics

  • Mobile: Any radio terminal that could be moved during operation or a radio
  • terminal that is attached to a high-speed mobile platform (e.g. a cellular
  • telephone in a fast moving vehicle) whereas the portable describes a radio
  • terminal that can be hand-held and used by someone at walking speed.
  • Subscriber: A mobile or portable user (user pay fee).
  • Subscriber Unit or Mobile Station: Each user communication device.
  • Mobiles or Users: Collective group of users in a wireless system. Many users
  • may actually user portable terminals.
  • Base Stations: A fixed stations in a mobile radio system used for
  • communication with mobile stations. They are located at the center or on the
  • edge of a coverage region and consist of radio channels and transmitter and
  • receiver antennas mounted on a tower.
  • Mobile Switching Center: Switching center, which coordinates the routing of
  • calls in large service area. In a cellular radio system, MSC connects cellular
  • base station and the mobiles to the PSTN. An MSC is also called a mobile
  • telephone switching office (MSTSO).
slide5

Basics

  • Control Channel: Radio Channels used for transmission of call setup, call
  • request, call initiation and other beacon or control purpose.
  • Forward Channel: Transmission of information from the base to a mobile
  • station.
  • Reverse Channel: Transmission of information from the mobile to a base
  • station.
  • Roamer: A mobile station, which operates in a service area (market) other
  • than that from which service has been subscribe.
  • Handoff: The process of transferring a mobile station from one channel or
  • base station to another.
  • Page: A brief message, which is broadcast over the entire service area.
slide6

Classification

  • Simplex: Communication is possible in only one direction (no acknowledge) e.g. Paging Systems.
  • Half duplex: Communication is bi directional but use same channel for both receiving and transmission (push-to-talk and release-to-listen).
  • Half duplex: Communication is bi directional but allows simultaneous transmission and reception b/w subscriber and base station. Implemented by FDD (frequency division duplex; separate channel) or TDD (time division duplex; adjacent time slots).
slide7

PSTN

(Public Switched

Telephone Network)

Generic WCS (Wireless Communication System)

Base

Station

Base

Station

Switch

Handset

Handset

cellular communications
Cellular Communications
  • Cells
  • Radio Tower Frequencies
  • Clusters
  • Frequency Reuse
  • Cell Splitting
  • Handoff

PSTN

cellular call setup
Cellular Call Setup
  • 1. Phone scans for towers for strongest signal on control channel
  • 2.Transmit Mobile Identification Number (MIN), Electronic Serial Number (ESN), and telephone number
  • 3. MTSO sets up call

PSTN

Car Phone = 2W

Cellular Service Subscriber

Mobile

Telephone

Hand Phone = 0.7W

Switching

Office

MTSO

wireless generations
Wireless “Generations”

First Generation (1989)

  • Analog voice using FM channels
  • Also called AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
  • Solved the issue of “mobility”
slide11

Multiple Access

The basis for any mobile system is its air interface design, and

particularly the way the common transmission medium is shared

between users, that is, multiple access scheme.

Multiple access scheme defines how the radio spectrum is

divided into channels, and how the channels separate the

different users of the system.

FDMA, TDMA, CDMA

slide12
AMPS
  • AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System
  • Analog cell phone standard deployed across North America
  • Approved by FCC in 1983 – first deployed in Chicago
  • Utilizes 824MHz-894MHz frequencies
  • 832 available frequencies
    • 790 Voice
    • 42 Data (signaling)
  • 30 KHz wide – voice quality
  • FDMA
  • NAMPS – Narrowband AMPS –
    • 3x AMPS capacity
wireless generations1
Wireless “Generations”

2G - Second Generation (1998)

  • Digital modulation used for speech compression
  • Still a voice-only network, except for limited circuit switched data capability
  • Several different system types:
    • TDMA - time division multiple access
    • CDMA - code division multiple access
    • GSM - global mobile system (the original acronym is French) – Group Special Mobile.
  • Solved the issue of “capacity”
cellular access technologies
Cellular Access Technologies
  • There are three common technologies used by cell phone networks for transmitting information:
  • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
    • FDMA puts each call on a separate frequency.
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
    • TDMA assigns each call a certain portion of time on a designated frequency.
  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
    • CDMA gives a unique code to each call and spreads it over the available frequencies.
  • The last part of each name is multiple access. This simply means that more than one user (multiple) can use (access) each cell.
slide15
FDMA
  • In a FDMA system, the total system bandwidth is divided into several frequency channels that are allocated to users.

824.04 MHz

45 MHz

893.7 MHz

slide16
TDMA
  • In a TDMA system, one frequency channel is divided into time slots that are allocated to users, and the users only transmit during their assigned timeslots. Examples of demand-assignment contention less protocols are token bus and token ring LANs described by the IEEE in the 802.4 and 802.5 standards.

6.7MS

824.04 MHz

Digital decoding

Digital encoding

893.7 MHz

slide17
CDMA
  • CDMA takes an entirely different approach from TDMA. CDMA, after digitizing data, spreads it out over the entire bandwidth it has available. Multiple calls are overlaid over each other on the channel, with each assigned a unique sequence code. CDMA is a form of spread spectrum, which simply means that data is sent in small pieces over a number of the discrete frequencies available for use at any time in the specified range.

1850MHz

Digital decoding

Digital decoding

1990MHz

CDMA

slide18
GSM

GSM – Groupe Spécial Mobile

  • GSM is an international digital cellular standard in Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa
  • Originally, the acronym GSM stood for Groupe Spécial Mobile, a group formed by the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) in 1982 to research the merits of a European standard for mobile telecommunications.
  • Commercial service using the GSM system did not actually start until 1991.
  • GSM was developed as a digital system using TDMA technology.
slide19
GSM
  • GSM uses TDMA
  • 900 MHz – 1800 MHz (Europe and Asia)
  • 1900 MHz (North America)
  • Used for digital PCS services
  • One phone for all standard GSM worldwide except North America
  • To switch providers – switch SIM (subscriber identification modules) cards
gsm features
GSM Features
  • Uses encryption to make phone calls more secure
  • Data networking
  • Short Message Service (SMS) for text messages and paging
  • Call forwarding
  • Caller ID
  • Call waiting
gsm network architecture

VLR

HLR/

AuC

BTS

GSM Network Architecture

BSS

NSS

Um

MSC

BSC

TRAU

A

Abis

Ater

PSTN

MS

C

MS – Mobile Station

BSS – Base Station Subsystem

BTS – Base Trans Station

BSC – Base Station Controller

TRAU - Transcoder / Rate Adaptation Unit

MSC – Mobile Switching Centre

NSS – Network Switching Subsystem

VLR – Visitor Location Register

HLR – Home Location Register

AuC – Authentication Centre

D

evolving standards and terminology
Evolving Standards and Terminology
  • 1st Generation
  • AMPS
    • Bell Wireless Alliance
    • Cantel
  • 2nd Generation
  • IS-95A (CDMA) and IS-136 (TDMA)
    • Bell Wireless Alliance(CDMA)
    • ATT Rogers (Cantel)(TDMA)
    • Clearnet (CDMA)
    • Microcell (GSM)
wireless generations2
Wireless “Generations”

2.5 Generation

  • Packet switched data at rates up to 144 kbps
  • Several different types:
    • GPRS - evolved from GSM
    • 1xRTT - evolved from CDMA
  • Will require a Core IP Network
  • Solves the issue of “mobility” with packet data
slide24
GPRS

GPRS – General Packet Radio Services

  • An evolution of GSM
  • Higher speed data services
  • GPRS has seamless interface capabilities to TCP/IP
from gsm to gsm gprs network

MSC

Um

PSTN

TRAU

BSC

VLR

A

Abis

Ater

C

MS

HLR/

AuC

D

Agprs

GGSN

Gr

Frame

Relay

Backbone

Gb

Private

IP

Backbone

BTS

Gn

Gn

Gb

SGSN

PCU

Gi

External

Packet Networks

Intranet, Internet

From GSM to GSM/GPRS Network

MS – Mobile Station

BSS – Base Station Subsystem

BTS – Base Trans Station

BSC – Base Station Controller

TRAU - Transcoder / Rate Adaptation Unit

MSC – Mobile Switching Centre

NSS – Network Switching Subsystem

VLR – Visitor Location Register

HLR – Home Location Register

AuC – Authentication Centre\

SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node

GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node

research in motion
Research in Motion
  • GPRS in Canada/US
  • BlackBerry
wireless generations3
Wireless “Generations”

3G -Third Generation (future)

  • Packet switched data at rates up to 2.4 Mbps
  • ITU standard - standards still evolving
  • Adds the high data rate component and quality of service parameters
  • Introduces an Open Standard concept that will foster increased development of wireless applications, much like the Internet.
slide28
UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

  • Third Generation (3G) Technology
  • Uses W-CDMA, FDD, TDD
  • Phase 1, called Release 1999 (R99) is an evolution of the GSM network architecture
  • Key features:
    • Open standards based
    • all IP in the core
    • decentralized network
    • service based
  • In plain English : a network that will allow IP devices to roam while providing 384 kbps to 2 Mbps access rates.
  • If successful, may become the “World Standard”
slide29
UMTS
  • Will provide 2 Mbps in a local environment
  • Will provide 384 kbps at highway velocities
  • Will use IP over ATM to control different data types:
    • controlling data latency and quality
  • Will use W-CDMA-FDD for macro mobility at 144 kbps
  • Will use W-CDMA-TDD for micro mobility at 2 Mbps
umts architecture

ATM

Backbone

Node B

(BTS)

Node B

(BTS)

ATM

Backbone

UMTS Architecture
  • UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)

Core Network

Access Network

RNC - Radio Network Controller

Uu

Iu

(CS & PS)

Iub(ATM)

Circuit Domain

UE

Iur

Uu

Iur

Packet Domain

Iu

(CS & PS)

Iub (ATM)

UE

RNC

umts interfaces

PSTN

ATM

Backbone

GGSN

Private

IP

Backbone

Node B

(BTS)

Node B

(BTS)

SGSN

External

Packet

Networks

UMTS Interfaces

Access Network

Core Network

Uu

MSC

TRAU

RNC

Iu CS

Iu

(CS & PS)

Iub(ATM)

UE

C

Iur

VLR

D

ATM

Backbone

HLR/AuC

Gr

Uu

Iur

Iu PS

Iu

(CS & PS)

Iub(ATM)

Gn

Gn

UE

Gi

RNC