TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS. A BRIEF OVERVIEW. EACH OF US IS REALLY THREE PEOPLE!!!!. THREE MODES OF BEHAVIOR . Parent Adult Child These are called EGO STATES They are Felt states of being and not just roles. Child Ego State. Natural Child(PRINCE)- Hateful/ loving/ spontaneous/ playful
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TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS A BRIEF OVERVIEW
THREE MODES OF BEHAVIOR • Parent • Adult • Child These are called EGO STATES They are Felt states of being and not just roles.
Child Ego State • Natural Child(PRINCE)- Hateful/ loving/ spontaneous/ playful • Intuitive Child(LITTLE PROFESSOR)- Thoughtful/ imaginative/ creative • Adapted Child(FROG)- fearful/ guilty/ ashamed
Parent Ego State • A collection of pre-recorded, pre-judged, prejudiced codes for living. • Decides, without reasoning, how to react to situations. • Can be over-controlling and oppressive or life giving, supportive and tender.
Overly Critical- Critical parent • Loving and nurturing the child- Nurturing parent
Adult Ego State • Has no emotions – able to detach from feelings. • Logical.
Contamination • When the Adult uses information which has its source in the Child or in the Parent and which may be incorrect. • Prejudice.
Voices in the head!! • Parental Tapes being played over in our minds. • They may be good or bad depending on which parent’s tapes we are playing.
Critical parent is opposed to natural child. • Nurturing parent is supportive to natural child. • Critical parent activates the Adapted Child. • It is possible to fight your Critical Parent(also called Pig Parent).
RELATIONSHIPS • Child to Child • Parent to parent • Child to Adult • Adult to Parent • Adult to Adult
STROKES • The recognition that one person gives to another • Essential to a person's life • Can vary from actual physical touch to praise
Positive Strokes- “I love you”, “ you did a good job”- Warm Fuzzies • Negative Strokes- “I hate you”- cold Pricklies. • When positive strokes are not given, we look for negative strokes rather than be without strokes at all!!
We should learn to open our hearts and ask for strokes. • It makes life easier.
RITUAL • A pre-set exchange of recognition strokes. • "Hi!" “How are you?" "Fine, thanks." "Well, see you around. Bye!" • This is a four-stroke ritual.
PASTIME • A pre-set conversation around a certain subject. • Pastimes are most evident at cocktail parties and family get-together.
Games • Repetitive, devious series of transactions intended to get strokes. • Unfortunately, the strokes obtained in games are mostly negative. • A game is a failed method of getting strokes.
Intimacy • A direct and powerful exchange of strokes which people crave but seldom attain • The Child is frightened away from it by hurtful experiences.
Work • An activity which has a product as its result. • Good work results in the exchange of strokes as a side effect.
TRANSACTIONS • Transactions occur when any person relates to any other person. • The three types of transactions: COMPLEMENTARY,CROSSED & COVERT. • Every transaction is made up of a stimulus and response.
Complementary Transaction • between Adult and Adult • Parent to Child • Parent to Parent
Communication can continue between ego states as long as trans-actions are parallel. • Whenever a disruption of communication occurs, a crossed transaction caused it.
Cross Transaction • When three or more ego states are involved • The transactional response is addressed to an ego state different from the one which started the stimulus • They disrupt communication.
Discount Transaction • One very important kind of crossed transaction • Here one person completely disregards what the other one is saying. • Discounts are not always obvious but are always unpleasant
Covert Transactions • A covert transaction is when people say one thing and mean another. • Are the basis of games and are especially interesting because they are crooked. • They have a social (overt) and a psychological (covert) level.
PAYOFFS OF GAMES • The biological pay-off is strokes • The social pay-off of a game is time-structuring. • The existential pay-off of a game is the way in which the game confirms the existential position of each player.
RACKETS & STAMPS • People collect psychological trading stamps to be traded in for a divorce, a suicide, a drug binge or a blow-up.
ROLES & DEGREES • The three basic game roles are Persecutor, Rescuer, and Victim • Games can be played soft or hard
TURNING PEOPLE INTO FROGS • People are born princes and princesses • Their parents turn them into frogs. • Parents script their children
IT IS POSSIBLE TO DISCARD YOUR SCRIPT AND WRITE A NEW ONE AUTONOMOUSLY!!!!
SCRIPT CHECKLIST • Life course. What short sentence best describes the person's life? • Counterscript. This is a period of life dominated by the Parent. What does the person do when he seems to be escaping the life-course?
Parental Injunction. In what way did the Child in mother and father interfere with the person's OK-ness? • The Game. Every script is based on a major game • The Pastime. How does a person structure most of their spare time with others?
The Tragic Ending • Extremist, self-destructive scripts. • Banal scripts.
The Therapist's Role. • A good therapist is aware of roles and how to avoid them.
GOOD AND BAD GAMES and SCRIPTS • Even though games are crooked they can sometimes be useful. • Certain scripts may have socially redeeming features