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The Nation Breaking Apart. Growing Tensions Between North and South. Missouri Compromise 1820. Author: Henry Clay Missouri would be admitted as a Slave State. Maine would be admitted as a Free State.

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The nation breaking apart

The Nation Breaking Apart

Growing Tensions Between North and South


Missouri compromise 1820
Missouri Compromise1820

  • Author: Henry Clay

  • Missouri would be admitted as a Slave State.

  • Maine would be admitted as a Free State.

  • All territory in the Louisiana Territory above the 36, 30 Latitude Line, slavery would be outlawed.


Wilmot proviso 1846
Wilmot Proviso1846

David Wilmot, House of Representatives

(Pennsylvania)

  • Outlaw slavery in any territory won from Mexico.

  • South: Bill was unconstitutional, congress had no right to stop them from bring their property into the new territories. Constitution protected their property rights.

  • House: Passed

  • Senate: Failed


Wilmot proviso 18461
Wilmot Proviso1846

  • Results:

    • Creation of the Free Soil Party.

    • Dedicated to to stopping the spread of slavery.

    • “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men”.

    • Made slavery a key issue in politics from that point on.


The compromise of 1850 author henry clay
The Compromise of 1850Author: Henry Clay

North

South

  • California: Free State

  • Slave trade would be abolished in Washington D.C.

  • Congress would not pass anymore laws about slavery in the territories won from Mexico.

  • Congress would pass a stronger Fugitive Slave Law.


The fugitive slave act
The Fugitive Slave Act

  • People accused of being escaped slaves could be arrested at any time.

  • No right to a jury trial.

  • Required Northerners to help recapture runaway slaves.

  • Created the Federal Marshalls.

  • Judge would decide their fate.

    • $5 for releasing the person.

    • $10 for turning the person over the slaveholder.


The kansas nebraska act 1854
The Kansas-Nebraska Act1854

  • Author: Stephen Douglas, Senator (Illinois )

  • Organize the governments for the Nebraska Territory.

  • Divided into the Kansas and Nebraska Territories.


The kansas nebraska act 18541
The Kansas-Nebraska Act1854

  • The issue of slavery would be decided by Popular Sovereignty.

  • Popular Sovereignty:

  • The People Decide!!!!


Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas

  • Kansas Territory would be the first place Popular Soverneigty would be put to the test.

  • Both Proslavery and Antislavery people rushed into Kansas.

  • Election would held in March of 1855.

  • More Proslavery people were in Kansas at the time of the election.


Bleeding kansas1
Bleeding Kansas

  • Border Ruffians: 5,000 Missourians crossed the boarder and voted .

  • Kansas Territory became a slave territory. Capital was in Topecca.

  • Antislavery people called the election fixed and formed their own government. Capital was in Lawrence.


Bleeding kansas2
Bleeding Kansas

  • May, 1855: Sack of Lawrence

    • Mob attacks Lawrence

    • Destroys offices and the Govener’s home

    • John Brown: Extreme Abolitionist


Bleeding kansas3
Bleeding Kansas

  • Pottawatomie Massacre:

    • John Brown and seven others attack Pottawatomie Creek.

    • Five Proslavery men were killed.

    • Civil war broke out in Kansas that lasted for three years.

    • Became known as “Bleeding Kansas”


The dred scott case
The Dred Scott Case

  • Dred Scott: Slave of a Military Doctor from Missouri.

  • Owner took him into Wisconsin & Minnisota territories, which are both free territories.

  • After the death of the doctor, Aboloitionists talked Dred Scott into sueing for his freedom.


The dred scott case1
The Dred Scott Case

  • Dred Scott v. Sanford: Reached the Supreme Court in 1857.

  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney delivered the courts ruling.


The dred scott case2
The Dred Scott Case

  • Dred Scott was not a citizen.

  • (Slaves were Property/U.S. Constitution)

  • As a result, he could not sue in U.S. Courts.

  • Scott’s time in the free territories did not matter in his case, because he had to abide by Missouri’s slave codes.


The dred scott case3
The Dred Scott Case

  • Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.

  • To do so would violate the 5th Amendment.

    (Property Rights)

    Declared the Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional.


Lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln—Douglas Debates

  • The Republican Party grew out of the problems caused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

  • No room for comprimise on the expansion of slavery.

  • The violance in Kansas was the Democrats (Southern slave holders) fault.

  • Republicans quickly gained support in the Northern states.


Lincoln douglas debates1
Lincoln—Douglas Debates

  • After the Supreme Court made it’s ruling on the Dred Scott Case, the Republicans charged that the Democrats wanted to legalize slavery everywhere.

  • Illinois: Senate Seat

    • Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln

    • Democrats renominate Stephen Douglas


Lincoln douglas debates a house divided against itself cannot stand
Lincoln—Douglas Debates“A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand”

  • Stephen Douglas

    • Author Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • Popular Sovereignty

  • Abraham Lincoln

  • Little known Laywer

  • Southerns wanted to expand slavery everywhere


Lincoln douglas debates2
Lincoln—Douglas Debates

  • The two men debated all over Illinois (7 times).

  • Lincoln:

    • Slavery was “a moral, a social and a political wrong.”

    • It should be stopped from spreading, but not to abolish it completely.


Lincoln douglas debates3
Lincoln—Douglas Debates

  • Douglas:

    • Popular Sovereignty was most the democratic method to use.

    • Dred Scott case made Popular Sovereignty unconstitutional.

    • “The people have the lawful means to introduce or exclude it as they please.”

    • Douglas won relection.


Harpers ferry
Harpers Ferry

  • Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

  • John Brown and 18 men, 13 whites & 5 blacks.

  • Captue the arsenal and use the arms to rally the local slaves to join him to start a rebellion.

  • October 16, 1859 attack took place and they were able to capture the arsenal.


Harpers ferry1
Harpers Ferry

  • No slaves came to join him and his gang.

  • They were surounded by Federal troops led by Robert E. Lee.

  • When the fight was over, 10 had been killed and Brown and six of his men had been captured.


Harpers ferry2
Harpers Ferry

  • Results:

    • John Brown was put on trial for Murder and Treason.

    • Found guilty and sentenced to hanged.

    • North: On the day he was to be Hanged. Abolitionists rang church bells and fired guns in his honor.

    • South: The people were horrified by his actions and were in disbelief by the reactions in the North.