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ARMH : Fitts ’ Law. Paul Cairns paul.cairns@york.ac.uk. A law?!?!. One of the few in HCI Predictive Reliable Valuable research tool!. Today’s objectives. Fitts’ Law Theoretical basis Adaptations for HCI Implications for design Thoughts on modelling. Overview. Model for prediction

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armh fitts law

ARMH: Fitts’ Law

Paul Cairns

paul.cairns@york.ac.uk

a law
A law?!?!
  • One of the few in HCI
  • Predictive
  • Reliable
  • Valuable research tool!

ARMH: Fitts' Law

today s objectives
Today’s objectives
  • Fitts’ Law
  • Theoretical basis
  • Adaptations for HCI
  • Implications for design
  • Thoughts on modelling

ARMH: Fitts' Law

overview
Overview
  • Model for prediction
  • Time to point
  • Difficulty of target

ARMH: Fitts' Law

a demo
A demo

Interactive Fitts' Law talk

  • Not quite accurate!

ARMH: Fitts' Law

fitts proposed law
Fitts’ Proposed Law
  • D
  • 1/W
  • a, b
  • Log?

ARMH: Fitts' Law

theory or analogy
Theory (or Analogy?)
  • Analogy with Shannon information
  • Meyer’s derivation
  • MacKenzie’s improvement

ARMH: Fitts' Law

terms
Terms
  • Index of difficulty
    • bits
  • Index of Performance, 1/b
    • bits per second

ARMH: Fitts' Law

impact in hci
Impact in HCI
  • Reduce ID
    • Bigger icons, more space
  • Compare IP
    • “Capacity” of input devices
  • Put things in edges and corners

ARMH: Fitts' Law

deconstructing fitts
Deconstructing Fitts
  • Ecological validity
  • Construct validity

ARMH: Fitts' Law

what fitts did
What Fitts did:

W

D

ARMH: Fitts' Law

let s have a go
Let’s have a go!

ARMH: Fitts' Law

what we apply it to
What we apply it to:

ARMH: Fitts' Law

correcting for w
Correcting for W
  • W’ – actual cross-section
  • Smaller of W and H
  • Area, W x H
  • Sum, W + H
  • Stick with W
  • Which is best?

ARMH: Fitts' Law

implications debunked
Implications debunked
  • Edges are better
  • Corners are best
  • Mice are non-linear anyway!

ARMH: Fitts' Law

what remains
What remains?
  • D/“W” is key
    • Target size (angle)
    • Stopping range (proportion)
  • Non-linear (concave), monotonic
    • Quite possibly log function
  • IP is meaningful
  • a is important

ARMH: Fitts' Law

toolbars
Toolbars
  • This is annoying not useful
  • Edges and corners?

ARMH: Fitts' Law

novel interactions
Novel interactions
  • Artificially increasing W
    • “Sticky” buttons
    • Bubbles
  • Changing select
    • Goal-crossing

ARMH: Fitts' Law

novel devices
Novel devices
  • Comparing IP
    • iPhone
    • Wii
    • Kinect
    • Eye Gaze

ARMH: Fitts' Law

thoughts on modelling
Thoughts on Modelling
  • Is it a good model?
    • Yes, it fits the data
    • No, we don’t know why!
  • Could we produce a better one?
    • How?

ARMH: Fitts' Law

advanced fitts law
Advanced Fitts’ Law
  • Fitts’ law as a model
  • Steering law
    • Games
    • Menu navigation
    • VE/VR?

ARMH: Fitts' Law

reading for today
Reading for today
  • MacKenzie (1992) Fitts’ Law as a Research and Design Tool…, HCI (7), 91-139
  • MacKenzie & Buxton (1992) Extending Fitts’ Law to 2d tasks, CHI 1992, 219-226
  • Interaction Design, 2nd edn
  • Cockburn & Firth (2003) Improving the acquisition of small targets. BCS HCI 03, 181-196
  • Accot & Zhai (1997) Beyond Fitts’ Law… ACM CHI 97, 295-302

ARMH: Fitts' Law