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Captioning Beyond Compliance Using the DECT Grant and AST To Deliver Effective Distance Learning Pat Brogan, Ph.D. November 18, 2009. Agenda. Accessibility compliance Benefits of captioning beyond compliance for distance ed

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Captioning Beyond Compliance

Using the DECT Grant and AST To Deliver Effective Distance Learning

Pat Brogan, Ph.D.

November 18, 2009


Accessibility compliance

Benefits of captioning beyond compliance for distance ed

Examples of uses of captions and transcripts

Captioning options, process and workflow

Evaluating the impact on learning

Using the DECT Grant with AST

automatic sync technologies
Automatic Sync Technologies
  • Funded in part by DoE grant to evaluate captioning automation
  • Provides offline captioning in 40+ formats and transcription as DECT-approved vendor under the CollegeBuys program
  • Extensively use automation to keep costs low
    • AST price for DECT Grant lowest of all three vendors by considerable amount
  • Transcription services performed by trained stenographers, not speech recognition
  • Available 24/7 via web interface
pat brogan ph d
Pat Brogan, Ph.D.
  • 25 years ed tech experience
  • Worked on accessibility and elearning (SCORM) initiatives
  • Published “Standards” chapter in recently released “The eLearning Handbook”
  • Former adjunct faculty member Santa Clara University
  • Ph.D. research conducted on distance learning
    • Studies conducted on remedial math students at DeAnza College and Dallas County Community College District
federal accessibility mandates
Federal Accessibility Mandates
  • ADA Section 504
  • “No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States... shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program, service or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service.”
  • Web-based communications for educational institutions are covered
  • ADA Section 508
  • 1194.24 standards apply to: streaming media such as broadcast and cable signals, as well as online presentations must correctly receive and display closed captions
  • 1194.24(c) & (d) & (e) "All training and informational video and multimedia productions must contain captions
ccc de accessibility guidelines
CCC DE Accessibility Guidelines

All distance education resources must be designed to afford students with disabilities maximum opportunity to access distance education resources "anytime, anywhere" without the need for outside assistance (i.e. sign language interpreters, aides, etc.).

Distance education resources must be designed to provide "built-in" accommodation where possible (i.e. closed captioning, descriptive narration) and/or interface design/content layout which is accessible to "industry standard" assistive computer technology in common use by persons with disabilities.

Whenever possible, information should be provided in the alternative format preferred by the student

Source: HTCTU

california ab 386
California AB 386

Facilitates the approval for permission to caption non-captioned publishers’ materials

AB 386 expands the definition of non-printed instructional materials to include “audiovisual works and digital media files”

Public colleges and universities can create captioned versions of audiovisual works if a publisher does not respond to a written request within two weeks

Information at:

AST can provide captioning

reframing captioning not just for the deaf
Reframing Captioning: Not Just For The Deaf

Critical for deaf and hard of hearing, beneficial for all

disability types of college freshmen
Disability Types of College Freshmen

LD Students benefit from hearing and seeing words together

ccc challenges
CCC Challenges

Attract and retain students

Serve more with less $

Keep them on task and motivated

Provide instruction and materials to suit digital natives’ learning styles

Ensure academic proficiency


Continually rethink models of instruction

distance ed for community colleges more critical now than ever
Distance Ed For Community Colleges More Critical Now Than Ever
  • Budget cuts mean fewer classes, impact CCC students’ schedules
  • Increasing cost of transportation-students can’t afford gas
  • Increasing preference for online interaction
  • Job and family considerations
  • Reduced geographic barriers
  • Economy impact: job retraining
instruction is evolving
Instruction Is Evolving
  • Synchronous vs. asynchronous course delivery

Students prefer asynchronous

UCSF offered live CourseStream classes to remote users, almost ALL preferred to watch asynchronously

  • Content is queen, context is king
  • Any time, any place learning
so how do captions and transcripts help
So, How Do Captions and Transcripts Help?

Address accessibility requirements

Provide text to make content discoverable and navigable which is essential for reuse

Provide a basis for foreign language translation

Provide content relevant to different learning styles

Provide study tools

captions and transcripts uses in de
Captions and Transcripts Uses in DE

Video instruction

Recorded “learning objects”


Archived classes

Publishers’ materials

Broadcast video

Student generated content


transcript use example
Transcript Use Example

Students retain more if they are able to 'read ahead' and have more of the transcript visible

Study at:

captions to go
Captions To Go

Captioned VODcast

video search
Video Search

Searching can be performed at different levels:

A specified directory, campus server or across the Internet

research on benefits of captions
Research on Benefits of Captions
  • Augmenting an auditory experience with captions more than doubles the retention and comprehension levels.” Gary Robson, The Closed Captioning Handbook
  • Adult students that used captioned video presentations progressed significantly better than those using traditional literacy techniques. Benjamin Michael Rogner, Adult Literacy: Captioned Videotapes and Word Recognition
  • Dual Coding Theory postulates that both visual and verbal information are processed differently and along distinct channels with the human mind creating separate representations for information processed in each channel. Allan Paivio, University of Western Ontario
  • Multi-Modal Learning: See It, Hear It, Do It, Master It. Use 2 or more senses to avoid sensory overload (Granström, House, & Karlsson 2002, Clark & Mayer 2003)
san francisco state study
San Francisco State Study

American Indian Studies Class, 2007

Instructional materials delivered randomly to students- 50% got captioned videos, 50% did not

Students who watched captioned videos were more engaged, more responsive to questions about video, were able to make the connections to their lives better.

Students who received captioned video averaged 1 GPA increase over students not exposed to captions.


captioning with ast
Captioning With AST
  • AST has negotiated pricing under the CollegeBuys program. This pricing applies to both DECT grant-funded projects and non-DECT grant captioning projects
  • For eligible DECT grant captioning or transcription services:
    • Option A: apply, get approval and have project direct billed to the grant
    • Option B: Submit media to AST and apply for reimbursement upon completion
  • For non-DECT grant captioning and transcription, two options are available:
    • Option A: Purchase under the CollegeBuys program by creating an account with AST. You will be receive the negotiated rate and be billed directly
    • Option B: Purchase under AST’s non-College Buys volume discount program (for large projects or non-DECT work)
  • Options explained in detail at:
evaluating the impact
Evaluating The Impact
  • Caption use studies are sparse, as are tools to see who uses captions
  • Encourage data-gathering: surveys
    • Who uses captions?
    • Why?
    • What impact did they have?
  • View system metrics: Did content usage increase?
  • Was the content more “discoverable”? Gather SEO data
  • Did the overall course metrics show improvements?
applying for dect grant
Applying For DECT Grant
  • Ensure that media qualifies as Distance Ed material
  • Fill out an application agreement:
  • Obtain a login account with Automatic Sync at:
    • You will need to fill in the project number assigned to you by the DECT project office.
  • You will receive instructions via email about logging in and submitting media
  • You project will be directly billed to the project office
using ast s captionsync
Using AST’s CaptionSync
  • Create an account. If you have large volumes of files, AST-Link can be enabled allowing you to FTP files in bulk.
  • Logon at
  • Upload your media or transcript if captions-only are needed
  • Specify service timeframe: 24 hour or 3 business days
    • If you provide a transcript captions are generated in minutes
  • Receive caption files back via email or by downloading from AST’s website
  • Watch AST’s “How To” videos on integrating your captions with different media types
  • Your files are available anytime on your account. If you make edits or need new formats, you can “redo” your files at no charge for 6 months from original submission date
caption output types supported by ast



DVD Studio Pro


DVDLab Pro

Sony DVD Architect


Media Players

Search Data




Windows Media



Google Video

AST Search


Browsable Transcripts

Reel Surfer


Content Systems











Caption Output Types Supported by AST

More than 40 different outputs. Pick and choose.

advanced features
Advanced Features

Video search

Browsable transcripts: HTML transcript which allows searching at the word level and launching audio and video from the word

Word level captioning: Karaoke-style captioning for foreign language, music and classes where word-level emphasis is needed

Lecture Capture System Integration-Echo360, Mediasite and Panopto

  • SF State Study:
  • AST DECT project Website:
  • DECT Site:
  • “How-to” videos at:
  • Result types and what they are used for:
  • In-depth presentation on different ways to caption: