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600 CE to 1450 CE

600 CE to 1450 CE

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600 CE to 1450 CE

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  1. 600 CE to 1450 CE Rise of Islam Medieval Europe & Byzantines

  2. Rise of Islam • Empire of common culture, cosmopolitan • Qur’an • Five Pillars, Ka’ba • Mecca and Medina • Split between Shia and Sunni, caliph

  3. Umayyad Dynasty • Arabic becomes official govt language • People converted to avoid a tax • Attacked Constantinople, but failed • Advanced into Spain, 732 CE • Charles Martel (Frank) stopped their advance • Dome of the Rock is built • Split happens between Sunni & Shi’itecausing it’s demise

  4. Abbasid Dynasty • 750-1258 CE • mid 800s—Golden Age • Capital moves to Baghdad • Trade • Credit • Innovation—steel, medical, algebra, • Preserved Western knowledge • Tolerant of local customs

  5. Dar al’Islam

  6. Women in Islam • Traditional Arabian society • Women didn’t have property rights • Men kept dowry if divorced • Female infanticide • Qu’ran (651 CE) • Treated with more dignity • Return dowry if divorce • Equal before Allah • Infanticide was forbidden • Mohammad’s 1st wife was a successful business-women • Polygamy as long as treated equal • Testimony in court given ½ the weight • Veiled in public—Mesopotamia and Persia • Over time became more patriarchal

  7. Sufis • Islamic mystics • Effective missionaries • Personal relationship with Allah • Converted large #s of people to Islam

  8. Fall of Islamic Empire • Internal struggles and civil wars • Sunni and Shi’ite sects • succession • External problems • Persians, Europeans, Byzantines • Mongols 1258 CE • Fled to Egypt • Ottoman Turks reunite Egypt, Syria and Arabia and lasts till 1918

  9. Byzantine Empire • Constantinople • Highly centralized government • Orthodox—split with Rome • Justinian—Code & Hagia Sophia • Impacts Russia

  10. Note of Change: As the Empire Turns • Separate from Rome geographically

  11. C/c Religion & State in Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy • Secular in the East; religious in the West • Rome centralized religion—Latin • Orthodoxy—localized—local language • West—power stayed the Church • East—power in the State

  12. West—Medieval Europe • Viking and other nomadic raidsfeudalism • Code of chivalry • Primogeniture • Scholasticism • Crusades • Inquisition

  13. Rise of the Nation-State • William the Conqueror • Magna Carta • Isabella and Ferdinand

  14. C/C Ancient with Middle Ages • Agricultural surplusescities • Formed complicated institutions • Arts and sciences

  15. C/C Feudal Europe & Islam • Islamic traders traded with the world • European lords governed the manor • Baghdad became the center for learning • Europe very local and mainly religious education

  16. China • Tang dynasty got so big that it collapsed • Poetry • Civil service exam—bureaucracy • Song dynasty reunified • Practical encyclopedias and histories • Printing press • Civil service exam—bureaucracy • Transportation/canal networks for communication • Paper money and credit • Chinese junks • Fell to the Mongols—Yuan dynasty • Ming dynasty in 1368

  17. Chinese Women • Tang • Wu Zhao—1st Empress • Ruthless toward adversaries • Compassionate toward peasants Patriarchical—inferior, but with feminine virtues worth protecting Foot-binding

  18. Chinese Religion • Diverse during Han: Nestorians, Manicheans, Zorastrians, and Islam • Buddhism impacted the most • Appealed b/c of peace and meditation • Drain on the treasury b/c advocates end to earthly gain

  19. China Civil Service Exam • Stability b/c stayed in effect when dynasties changed • Leaders depended on the bureaucracy • Earned by strong performance • Meritocracy opposed to aristocracy • Similar to US b/c chg in President doesn’t change Congress

  20. Japan • Influenced by China and Korea • Yamato 1st ruling clan • Shinto • Buddhist missionaries • Modeled after Tang • Both held education in high esteem • Fujiwara—Feudal Japan

  21. C/C Europe & Japan • Similar political, social and honor code • Europe based on legal contract • Japan based on group identity

  22. India • Delhi Sultanate • Islam spread throughout N. India • Hindu temples were destroyed

  23. Rise and Fall of Mongols • Horseman, clan in-fighting kept them from uniting • Genghis Khan unified and invaded China • Separate hordes invaded Russia, middle east and India • Pax Mongolica • Continued exchange, but no major impact on culture and stifled some growth

  24. Mongols • Most became Muslim • Diffused culture • Didn’t mix with • Kept Russia from advancing as far as Europe • Brought the world together through trade

  25. Africa • Mansa Musa—Mali • Built Timbuktu • Pilgrimmage to Mecca • Oral literature

  26. Americas • Maya • Aztecs • Incas