Period 3: Regional and Trans regional Interactions 600 CE-1450 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Period 3: Regional and Trans regional Interactions 600 CE-1450

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Period 3: Regional and Trans regional Interactions 600 CE-1450
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Period 3: Regional and Trans regional Interactions 600 CE-1450

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  1. Period 3: Regional and Trans regional Interactions 600 CE-1450 Turn in Islam chart, keep women in Islamic societies out on your desk

  2. Post Classical period • Collapse of old empires, rise of city-states in Africa, Mesoamerica, Southeast Asia • Massive wars of conquest • Creating the Islamic world • Mongol Empire • Trade Routes • Africa and the Americas remained separate • Merchandise, ideas and culture spread between and connected the rest of the world • Systems of labor • Cities as the center of society (culture, language, trade, religion)

  3. Islamic Caliphates • Abbasids: Established their capital in Baghdad (Iraq) differed from Umayyad in that they granted equal status to converts to Islam • Increased trade from the Western Med. World to china • Math: Refined fields of algebra, geometry, trigonometry • Study of astronomy • Created detailed maps of the world

  4. Roman Empire

  5. Byzantine Empire 565

  6. 780

  7. 1278

  8. 1453

  9. Expansion of Empires-China • Tang (618-907) • Generally characterized by trade and agriculture • Controlled their empire through the use of diplomatic relations and the Great Wall • Continued use of the Civil Service exam • Government emphasized Confucianism, but Buddhism grew in popularity • Tang gov’t limited the power of Buddhism by putting restrictions on land and money grants • Decline: • Internal rebellion • Invasions by nomadic people

  10. Song Dynasty (960-1279) • Emphasized Chinese tradition namely patriarchal family and Confucian teachings • Significant technological advances • Forced to pay tribute (bribes) to the Khitan, a nomadic group located in northern China • Heavy emphasis on civil service exams • Neo-Confucianism: a blend of Confucian and Buddhist ideas and values • Applied Confucian respect for authority and family to all aspects of chinese society • This way, Buddhism complemented the government instead of posing a threat

  11. Achievements Tang Song Continued overseas trade Landscape paintings Warfare advancements: Catapults, flame throwers and rocket launchers Printing with moveable type Use of the compass Abacus Foot binding started with wealthy, spread to the lower classes • Increased contacts with the Islamic world • Improved ocean going ships-Chinese junks were among the worlds best ships • Use of flying money (letters of credit) to facilitate long distance trade • Canals and irrigation systems increased agricultural productivity

  12. Manorialism and feudalism • Labor and societal structure • Feudalism: political and social order of medieval Europe, a method of maintaining control of a society. • Serfs: people who were not slaves, yet not fully free. Produced the labor in this system. Worked the land in exchange for protection • Manor: main form of agricultural organization. Included land, crops, animals, tools and serfs. The lord acted as the government.

  13. Middle Ages in Europe • 11th-15th Centuries • Gothic Architecture • Increased urbanization-Europe in general had smaller cities than China • Rise of universities • Decline in serfs on the manor; many fled to towns to earn freedom • Centralized monarchies and growth of nation states • New warfare (gunpowder, cannons) made castles obsolete

  14. Mongols • Began as nomads on the Asian steppes (grasslands in Northern China) • Migrated with herds of sheep, horses, cattle, goats and camels • Grew small crops, but mostly depended on animal products • Traded with other nomadic groups and along the silk roads • Nomadic women in Asia • Had status and autonomy • Raised to complete all chores, military service • Could own property and divorce • Polygamy was normal within the clans

  15. Mongol Empires • 1167-Temujin was born; allied himself with powerful clans. Used steppe diplomacy to unite the Mongols under a single confederation • Became known as Chingghis Khan • First attacked other nomadic groups in Asia but soon moved on to China and Persia • 1220-conquered most of Northern China • Persia-ruling shah attacked Mongol ambassadors; The Mongols retaliated by destroying their irrigation systems and destroying cities

  16. Decline of Mongol Rule • Mid 14th century Mongol role weakened as they were more concerned with acquisition of territory and wealth than ruling effectively • The last years of the Yuan Dynasty were characterized by banditry, famine and peasant rebellion • Russia: failed attempts to conquer Eastern Europe in 1240; Mongols withdrew to their capital in Mongolia • Persia: rule ended in 1260; defeated by slaves of Egypt

  17. Impact • Russia • Remained culturally isolated from Europe developments such as the Renaissance • Persia • Ottoman Turks replaced Mongols as ruling power in the 15th century • Eurasia • Facilitation of trade between Europe and Asia • Mongols fostered peace and stability promoted the exchange of products and ideas • New trading posts encouraged people to invest in long distance exploration • Spread of the plague

  18. Bantu Migrations • Began in 2000 BCE-likely due to overpopulation; moved south and east through sub-Saharan Africa • Migrated from present day Nigeria; escalated between 500 BCE-1000; up until 1500 • Spread knowledge of agriculture techniques and iron working, adopted cattle raising • Banana arrived in 400 CE from Malay sailors (Indian Ocean trade) • Results: Spread of Bantu language, language blended with Islam to create Swahili

  19. Bantu Society and Government • Stateless societies • Political organization based around the family and kinship group • Leader was a respected family member • Religion was animistic • Earliest Bantu groups did not have a written language • Society centered around the age grade- group of members of the same age who shared responsibilities appropriate to age group • Women: highly respected as child-bearers; shared in agricultural duties • Property was held in common; wealth was determined by acquisition of slaves