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What Causes Weather? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What Causes Weather?. We should have discovered that land and water do not heat up at the same rate. If things went correctly, we should know that land heats up & cools down faster than water. Therefore, the sun will heat up land quicker than oceans.

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slide2

We should have discovered that land and water do not heat up at the same rate. If things went correctly, we should know that land heats up & cools down faster than water. Therefore, the sun will heat up land quicker than oceans.

slide3

That means that the hot air over land rises and cool air from over the ocean will blow in to take its place.

slide4

This uneven heating of the Earth causes hot air to rise and cold air to sink, leading to movement of air in the atmosphere.

atmosphere
atmosphere
  • A blanket of air surrounding the Earth
  • made up of gases, water, dust, & other small particles
  • It is divided into layers, based on temperature
  • troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
troposphere
Troposphere
  • Bottom layer of the atmosphere
  • most of Earth’s weather occurs here
  • 8 miles thick (13 km)
  • Supersonic aircraft fly in this layer
stratosphere
Stratosphere
  • 2nd layer of the atmosphere
  • contains the ozone layer
  • some aircraft fly in this layer
  • 21 miles (50 km)
mesosphere
Mesosphere
  • Third layer of the atmosphere
  • coldest layer
  • this is the layer where meteors burn up
  • 50 miles (80 km)
thermosphere
Thermosphere
  • The top layer of the atmosphere
  • very high temperatures
  • gradually merges into space
  • 196 miles (320 km)
air pressure
Air pressure
  • Gravity pulls on air
  • lower in the atmosphere means greater air pressure
  • cold air is heavier than warm air
  • when cold air sinks it forces up warm air
slide11
Wind
  • Movement of air
  • air is constantly moving
  • 3 reasons
  • gravity, temperature, Earth’s rotation
  • moves from high to low or cold to warm
local wind
Local Wind
  • A wind that results from a local difference in temperature
  • wind blowing in from the sea over a beach during the day
  • wind blowing from land to water at night
prevailing winds
Prevailing winds
  • Global winds
  • always blow in the same direction
  • caused by uneven heating of the Earth’s surface and rotation
  • creates many circles of air
  • moves in curved paths
slide14
????????
  • What two factors cause prevailing winds?
  • In what layer of the atmosphere does most weather occur?
  • In what layer is the ozone layer?
  • What drives all weather on the Earth?
  • Why is the climate warmer near the equator?