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## Energy Bar Charts

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**1. **Energy Bar Charts How to represent the role of energy in physical change

**2. **Constructing an Energy Bar Chart Consider this example
A cup of hot coffee cools as it sits on the table.
1. Determine what is in the system
Everything else makes up the surroundings

**3. **Decide whether Ech is involved In this case, you start with coffee and end with coffee; particles are not rearranged to form new substances
So, ignore Ech for now.

**4. **Assign values to Eph Due to interactions between particles, the energy stored due to the arrangement of particles is ranked:solids < liquids < gases
We choose to represent these phases by using:
Solids = 1 bar
Liquids = 2 bars
Gases = 4 bars

**5. **Assign values to Eph Use two Eph bars before and after

**6. **Choose bars for Eth depending on temperature Use 4 bars for hot coffee and 2 bars for room temp coffee
Other values might also work; try to be consistent in your representations

**7. **Now show energy transfer Final situation has 2 less bars of E than initial; 2 bars had to leave the system

**8. **Now, consider phase change A tray of ice cubes (-8 °C) is placed on the counter and becomes water at room temperature
What do we know about the situation?
The system is the tray of ice cubes.
The solid water turns to liquid water - no change in Ech
The Eph increases (solid?liquid)
The Eth increases (temp rises)
Now represent these changes in bar graph.

**9. **Initial & Final States Choice of bars for Eth arbitrary, but consistent.
We used 2 bars for room temp and 1 bar for cold soda before.
Temp < 0°C should be < 1 bar.

**10. **Account for Energy Energy must flow into system via heating

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