ABA 101 Kelly McKinnon, MA, BCBA, Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Why ABA to teach children with autism? • Research: * Lovaas study- Ivar Lovaas and his team at UCLA conducted a study in 1987, where they compared groups of children who received 40 hours of intensive treatment, vs. children who received10 hours of intensive treatment over 2 years. • Intensive treatment occurred at home, school and in the community (*summary of study only). Results summarized that 47% successfully passed 1st grade; 42%-completed classes for language-delayed, with substantial improvements, but not enough for regular 1st grade. • Note that 40 hours treatment included parental treatment as well. Other research since this has stated that actual treatment hours are between 24-27, due to lack of trained professionals, but with still good success rates. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
CalABA 2003: Gina Green, Ph.D with the institute of Effective Education: Behavior Analysts are ethically obligated to base interventions on this scientific evidence. She noted many current treatments for autism are NOT empirically based. ABA, (when used accurately) has substantial evidence of its effectiveness: 600+ studies since 1960, Matson et al, 1996, and that treatment should occur at least 25 hours per week. • Chapter three of the Surgeon General’s report on Mental Health 1999 states, “Thirty years of research demonstrated the efficacy of applied behavioral methods in reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing communication, learning and appropriate social behavior”. ABA methods clearly outline systematic programming when teaching new skills. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Applied Behavior Analysis Common misconceptions: “Do you do ABA or Social Skills? “ I do ABA” “Only the ABA person can teach that goal” Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
What is ABA? • ABA: Applied Behavioral Analysis. An approach that uses instructional technology designed to change behavior in a systematic and measurable way that is meaningful • ABA is a methodology and set of tools. It is not a curriculum in and of itself Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
What is Not ABA? • ABA does not mean “table work” • ABA is not discrete trial: Discrete trial is ONE method used in ABA, but does not stand alone • ABA does not mean a way to teach academics • ABA does not mean this is when you give candy Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis • ABA is a “way of life”. We use it every day! • We use “ABA” when we want to “make a change” or teach something new • Whenever you teach your child something new, and praise them you made a behavior change- and used “ABA” Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Let’s look at Behavior (change) and what it means: • Respondent Behavior: Is unlearned. It is solely under control of some antecedent stimuli. There is an S-R response. Reflexive behavior-automatic • Examples Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Let’s look at Behavior change and what it means: • Operant Behavior: Is at least partially under control of the consequence– we do it because we get something for it that keeps us doing it again. Learned behavior • Many operands are under control of both the antecedent and the consequences. S-R-C relationship– we do it because we have been reinforced in the past, and the “conditions are right” • The consequence is what is often the reason the behavior occurs- think about this! • Think about what motivates you to do things- these are the pairings Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
S-R-C relationship • S-R-C (or three-term contingency) has become known as the way in which behaviors are learned. The way operant learning happens. • S: Stimulus (antecedent- what happens before you respond: Example: teacher asks “who can tell me this word?” • R: Response: the child responds (or does not respond) • C: Consequence: what happens immediately following a response (or no response). Teacher praises. (or ignores) If child likes this, they will respond again (or if they don’t like being ignored, they will respond next time). Examples: happens all day in our life Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
A- What happened first events vs. assumptions B- What was the defined behavior C- What happened next behavior vs. assumptions Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Function- The consequence: the stimulus that is motivating behavior (what is reinforcing). Most behaviors are maintained by the consequence: • Social: attention, praise, eye contact, physical touch • Task Avoidance: not wanting to complete, or keeping to own agenda, escaping demands- *note, maintained by negative reinforcement-if I escape, stimuli (demand) removed • Sensory: tactile, olfactory, visual, vocal sounds, etc. These • feel good to the child- and often automatically reinforced by the child • Tangibles: access to favorite toys, favorite activities • Examples: Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Function- • Function is not to be guessed! • It is in the data! Bad Example “The child is hitting the child next to him because he doesn’t like him” “The child is running out of the classroom to get out of doing his work” Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Data collection • Collect Data across situations/settings/people- sometimes a behavior looks like something, but could be something else, like an illness, or a means to gain attention • Data sheets: can look different, as long as they note the behaviors, sometimes the intensity and duration, and what happens immediately after (consequence/what is reinforcing) • Data is important: example: we may think a child is responding to a situation due to escape behavior, but if we take date, we realize that every time they act out to “escape” math, the teacher gives them attention • We also want times of day in the data, to look for trends Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Function drives intervention • A- student was presented with a worksheet • B- student hit peer next to him • C-peer screamed Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
How to decrease that behavior • How to decrease that behavior: REACTIVE METHOD • Goes back to your consequence: what did you determine as the consequence the child was seeking: • Now, stop providing access to that consequence for the undesired behavior demonstration. • In other words, if a child screams and runs around the room when the teacher says “it is time to work”, and the child gets a “sensory break”, which actually allows the em to escape work, then the child if he wants to escape work, will do the same response again under those same antecedent conditions, because the consequence motivating him is that he is allowed to escape work. • Other examples: Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
How to decrease that behavior • How to decrease that behavior: PROACTIVE METHOD • We know what is motivating for the child, based on the consequence we assessed: we determined what was maintaining a behavior (desire to escape, attention, internal motivators, access to tangibles) AND you stopped providing access to those consequences when the behavior you want to change is displayed • NOW, be PROACTIVE, and teach a REPLACEMENT SKILL for the child to gain access to that desired consequence Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
How to increase a behavior • We now have new REPLACEMENT behaviors that we want to increase. • Remember: it is often the consequence>>what happens after the response, that determines if a behavior is likely to happen again or not>>that is important in changing behavior. • If you want a behavior to increase-happen more often– then making sure to provide access to desired consequences (REINFORCEMENT) is the way to make an increase. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Examples • Problem Behavior: calling out: assessed: for attention • Problem behaviorReplacement behavior decrease increase Calling out Raising hand Function-access attention Function-access attention Ignore Provide exaggerated (stop providing access attention—every to this desired consequence) instance Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement • The C in the S-R-C • Reinforcement: is a stimulus consequence: that serves to INCREASE the likelihood that the response will occur again • Gives you a reason to do it again- a child will not perform a new skill (especially that is hard or uncomfortable) without reinforcement- a reason to do it again • Running a marathon example • Reinforcement is NOT just giving candy Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Data Collection Data collection let’s us know if what we are doing is working! It is important that you breakdown what you are targeting, in a measurable way. Consider the following: Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Frequency How OFTEN does it occur? * Frequency: Number of times a behavior occurs. Count each instance. Generally looking for rates or frequency of a specific behavior to go up or go down; generally frequency looks at an instance of behavior in isolation; total amount Examples: Touching others, off-topic statements, hand flapping, total number of play ideas initiated Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
A-B-C data A- (Antecedent) B- (Behavior/Response) C- (Consequence) Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
ABC Data • A- Teacher gave directions to the whole class vs. • A- Student did not pay attention to teacher directions Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
ABC Data • B- Child ripped paper and threw pencil Vs B- Child became angry at teacher and threw his pencil at her and ripped paper to get out of doing work Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Percentage • How often does a response occur • Percentage looks at how often or many times a response occurs, out of possible occurrence, generally frequency addresses: number of responses X 100 Total number of opportunities Percentage often looks at accuracy of correct responses or total of responses in general Examples: number of times looked when responded; number of times correctly answering questions when asked; total number of times looked when listening Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Time samples • Will also give you a percentage outcome Partial Interval recording: • Record responses occurring during some time of a pre-determined period of time. Example, a student looks at his teacher at least one time during a 30 second interval. Whole interval recording: • Record response that must occur for the entire time of a pre-determined period of time. Example, student remains on task, for a whole minute, for a 10 minute period. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Time Samples • Momentary Time Samples • Record an response occurring when you end a designated period of time. For example, if you set a 30 second instance of time, record if a response occurs right when that time ends. This recording tends to give the most accurate estimate of responses • Examples: eye contact to teacher, engaged at recess, attending to peer Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Duration • Duration data looks at how LONG a response occurs. • Duration is helpful when you are looking to increase or decrease responses. Examples: how long a child sustains play. Determine appropriate duration, and then use a duration data system to track how long until you sustain for the criteria that you have set. • Examples, duration for playing an activity, duration for remaining seated in a circle time. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Time of day • Can be frequency data, or percentage • However time of day is accounted for • Medicine wear-off • Fatigue • Food Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Self-monitoring • Is used to track a student’s own behavior. • Generally looks at percentage: did a response occur or not occur • Measure this by total number of occurrence opportunities Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement • Reinforcement occurs when an event immediately following a response causes an increase in the probability of that response occurring in the future. • It’s the C in A-B-C contingency. • Reinforcement is used to strengthen behaviors. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement • It is NOT bribing. Bribing happens when you ask a child to do something, they don’t do it, THEN you say “I’ll give you this if you do it”. This teaches a child to ignore your first comments, and hold out for the good stuff • Reinforcement is NOT what YOU want it to be • It is a consequence that increases the likelihood that a response/behavior will occur again • Ways to obtain reinforcement information • Surveys, Observation, analysis through manipulation Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement • Reinforcement to increase responses: • Reinforcement is to be given immediately after a child has completed a correct response/desired behavior • This is to make sure the connection between the desired response and the reinforcer • Rule of thumb: when you are trying to increase/strengthen a new behavior, you want to reinforce it continuously—every instance (CRS-continuous reinforcement schedule) Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement Does the list look familiar? “Reinforcers” can consist of: • Sensory: tactile, olfactory, visual, etc. • Social : attention, praise, eye contact, escape from attention • Tangibles : edibles, favorite items, favorite activities • Breaks: opportunity to escape, “take a break” Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement • As often as you can, match the reinforcement you “put into place” (arrange as the consequence of the responses of your child) to be the SAME as the desired consequence of the child’s previous behavior (what was maintaining their behavior before) • Examples: • Fair Pair Rule: make the intensity of the reinforcement the same as the intensity of the behavior change you are looking for. Example: Don’t expect that a child that has jumped out of their seat 20 times in a class, to sit in their seat and raise their hand for 1 small piece of candy, or a coupon that they may or may not win something next week. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement There are 2 types of reinforcement: • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Positive Reinforcement An increase in the future frequency of a behavior due to the addition of a stimulus immediately following a response. **It is only a true “reinforcer” if it increases a response/behavior Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Examples of Positive Reinforcement • Giving sweets to a child after he completes a worksheet independently (assuming this increases the likelihood that the child will complete a worksheet independently in the future). • Providing tickles to a child that looks at you • Providing praise to a child that completed a task • If spanking a child after he spits increases the frequency of spitting in the future, the act of spanking is a positive reinforcement. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Negative Reinforcement An increasein the future frequency of a behavior due to the removal of an aversive stimulus immediately following a response. Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Examples of Negative Reinforcement • Turning off the computer to have a child attend • Husband cleans garage to stop wife from nagging • Itching your skin after you got bitten by a mosquito. (The itching behavior removes the itchy sensation.) Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Schedules of reinforcement • A schedule of Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) provides reinforcement for each occurrence of behavior. • Examples • Intermittent schedules of reinforcement (INT) provides reinforcement in some, but not all occurrences of behavior. Stronger R+ * Examples Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Token economies (Positive reinforcement) Definition: A behavior change system which involves the identification of specific behavior to be reinforced, a medium of exchange such as tokens or points, and back-up reinforcers which are purchased with the medium of exchange (Malott, 2000) Summary: 1) Clearly defined behaviors 2) Medium of exchange 3) Backup reinforcer Token=Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer: A conditioned reinforcer that has been paired with a wide variety of backup reinforcers. (Conditioned reinforcer: an event, object, stimulus that is not initially reinforcing but acquires properties of a reinforcer after frequent pairing or association with another reinforcer) Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Effective: research shows effective with those behaviors resistant to instruction • Tokens can bridge time gap (teaches delay of R+), and may be undesirable to stop lesson plan to deliver an immediate reinforcer • Tokens can bridge setting gap (example: tokens for assembly behavior can be for exchange later in classroom) • Management of satiation, and deprivation become less critical • Provides versatile means of communication—behavior that earns tokens can be varied among individuals • Provides structured interactions in a consistent manner—requires positive R+ in a timely, consistent method • Provides representation for student progress- can see accumulation Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Reinforcement Making reinforcement “natural” Be creative~ reinforcement must match as closely as possible to function Reinforcement should closely match the situation Increase sociability by having peers reinforcing Examples: Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Teaching new skills • Teaching a new skill generally involves showing, breaking down. • Teaching a new skill generally involves teaching, via PROMPTS Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Instructional Control • Developing attending and instructional control • Developing good attending skills and pattern of responding is often the first step when working with a child with ASD. This involves the systematic pairing of yourself with reinforcement and then generating a stimulus transfer. If you are reinforcing to be around, a pattern is developed. Now, slowly build in demands-pairing continuous reinforcement for each demand. Again, you develop a pattern of responding. Now, slowly thin your reinforcement. We cannot say enough about this. It does not mean forcing a child to sit—it means making your teaching fun! So they are motivated to respond! • Examples: Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Prompts Information/assistance added to the SD that helps the student perform the target behavior. • Purpose: Reduces frustration (few errors) and speeds up correct response-thus learning. • Consider your prompt hierarchy needed for child to respond correctly-to reduce errors and frustration; thus need to include a fading process. • Prompt dependency is due to lack of proper fading and reinforcement, • Watch for accidental extraneous prompts Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Prompts • Prompt hierarchy • Full physical • Partial physical • Gradual guidance • Touch cue • Gestural cue • Modeling • Direct verbal • Visual cue • Indirect prompt Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.
Types of Prompting General rule of thumb: Least-to-most prompting Errorless teaching is opposite: Most-to-least Kelly McKinnon & Associates, Inc.