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PAAL Training ABA 101. Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA. Training Objective. Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures. . Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction Motivating Operation Shaping Chaining Prompting Data collection .

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paal training aba 101

PAAL TrainingABA 101

Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA

training objective
Training Objective

Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures.

  • Reinforcement/ Punishment
  • Extinction
  • Motivating Operation
  • Shaping
  • Chaining
  • Prompting
  • Data collection
a pplied b ehavior a nalysis
Applied Behavior Analysis

“ABA is the science in which tactics deprived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.”

(Cooper, Heron, & Howard, 1987)

why aba
Why ABA?
  • It is way of life
  • “IT WORKS!!!!!”
  • Evidence Based
    • Measureable
    • Observable
    • Data driven decision making
    • Repeatable

Watson: (Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, 1913)

S-R Behaviorism

Skinner: (The Behavior of Organism, 1938)

Respondent Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Radical Behaviorism-include private events

respondent conditioning
Respondent Conditioning
  • US UR


  • US UR



respondent conditioning7
Respondent Conditioning
  • US UR


  • CS CR



operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Arrangement of resulting stimuli/ consequences to change future occurrences of voluntary behavior
    • Three-term contingency
    • Four-term contingency
    • Reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Extinction
three term contingency
Three-Term Contingency

A(SD) – B(R) – C(SR+/SR-/SP+/SP-)

Antecedent: a stimulus which occurs before a behavior

Behavior/ Response: movement or action by an individual

Consequences: a stimulus which is produced by a behavior

four term contingency
Four-Term Contingency


Motivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior)

  • EO: Establishing Operation
  • AO: Abolishing Operation
stimulus control
Stimulus Control
  • Contingent Relationship between antecedent stimulus an a response (behavior): The presence of antecedent stimulus alter the behavior in frequency, duration, latency, or intensity
  • SD (Discriminative Stimulus): in the presence a behavior will be reinforced
  • S∆: in the presence a behavior will not be reinforced
responses behaviors
  • Function-Based (obtain/escape/avoid)
    • the purpose of the behavior/ effect on the environment
  • Topography-Based
    • the shape or form of the behavior
target behaviors
Target Behaviors
  • Assessment(interview/ check list/ standardized test/ observation/ ecological assessment )
  • To increase or to decrease
  • Operational Definition
    • Objective: observable and measurable
    • Clarity: unfamiliar observers can identify
    • Completeness: clear boundaries, time frame

Future likelihood of behavior increases by

  • Positive Reinforcement: the contingent presentation of a stimulus (SR+), immediately following a response (R)
  • Negative Reinforcement: the contingent removal of an aversive stimulus (SR-) immediately following a response (R)


  • Primary/ Unconditioned

(food, water, sleep, oxygen, warmth, sexual stimulation)

  • Secondary/ Conditioned

(edible, tangible, sensory, activity oriented, social, generalized)

schedule of reinforcement
Schedule of Reinforcement
  • CRF: Continuous Reinforcement (FR1)
  • INT: Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement
  • FR: Fixed Ratio Schedule
  • VR: Variable Ratio Schedule
  • FI: Fixed Interval Schedule
  • VI: Variable Interval Schedule
  • Compound Schedule (c.f. concurrent, multiple,

chained, mixed, tandem, alternative)

stimulus preference assessment
Stimulus Preference Assessment
  • Ask
    • Target Person (open-ended, choice, rank-ordering)
    • significant others
    • pretask choice
  • Free Operant
    • contrived observation (predetermined set)
    • naturalistic observation
  • Trial Based
    • Single Stimuli
    • Paired Stimuli
    • Multiple Stimuli
reinforcer assessment
Reinforcer Assessment
  • Concurrent Schedule:

two or more reinforcers for two or more behaviors

  • Multiple Schedule:

two or more schedule of reinforcement for a behavior

  • Progressive Ratio Schedule:

requirement for reinforcement will increase over time

use reinforcers effectively
Use Reinforcers Effectively
  • Timing
  • Consistency
  • Amount
  • Quality
  • Variety (EO)
  • Novelty
  • Concurrent Schedule
  • Generalization

Future likelihood of behavior will decrease by

  • Positive Punishment: the contingent presentation of an aversive stimulus (SP+) immediately following a response (R)
  • Negative Punishment: the contingent removal of a stimulus (SP-)immediately following a response (R)


  • Primary/ Unconditioned

(pain, odors, tastes, physical restraint, loss of bodily support, extreme muscular effort)

  • Secondary/ Conditioned

(reprimands, response blocking, contingent exercise, overcorrection-restitutional/positive practice)


The frequency of the previously reinforced behavior decreases or ceases by discontinuing reinforcement

    • Positive reinforcement
    • escape extinction
    • sensory extinction
  • Extinction Burst
  • Spontaneous Recovery
behavior reduction procedure
Behavior Reduction Procedure

Differential Reinforcement

  • DRI:
  • DRA:
  • DRL (full-session DRL, interval DRL, spaced-responding DRL)
data collection
Data Collection
  • Direct Measurement
    • Permanent Products (written sample)
  • Direct Observational Recording
    • Event Recording
    • Duration Recording
    • Latency Recording
    • Inter Response Time (IRT)
    • Interval Recording (whole or partial)
    • Momentary Time Sampling
data collection27
Data Collection
  • Summary
    • Frequency/ Rate/ Percentage/ Fluency
    • Graphing (independent variable/dependent variable)
    • Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
    • Analysis

(base line/treatment, variability, trend-ascending/descending, level, internal/external validity)

data collection28
Data Collection
  • ..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\data collection1.mpg
  • ..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\data collection2.mpg
  • ..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\Interval Recording video.mpg
  • Differential reinforcement of successive approximation to the terminal behavior
    • Topography
    • Frequency
    • Latency
    • Duration
    • Magnitude

Supplementary S to increase likelihood of correct responses

Response Prompts

  • Pictorial/Textual
  • Verbal (full or partial)
  • Modeling
  • Physical guidance (Full or Partial)

Stimulus Prompts

  • Movement cues/ Gestrual
  • Position cues
  • Redundancy cues
    • color
    • size
    • shape
  • Pictorial/ Textual
  • Verbal
  • Gestural
  • Modeling
  • Physical Guidance
  • ..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\20080722111134.mpg
prompt fading
Prompt Fading

: Gradual Removal of prompts

  • Most to Least
  • Least to Most
  • Decreasing Assistance
  • Graduated Guidance: fade physical prompts
  • Time Delay
  • Increasing Assistance
behavior chain
Behavior Chain

: a particular sequence of responses within a complex skill in which completion of a response serves as a conditioned reinforcer as well as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain.

S1 S2 S3 S4

R1 R2 R3 R4 SR

task analysis
Task Analysis

: breaking down a complex task into simple and smaller units

  • Example:
    • TA for brushing teeth
brushing teeth
Brushing Teeth
  • hygiene\08071604.mpg
teaching behavior chains
Teaching Behavior Chains
  • Total-Task Chaining/ Total-Task Presentation
  • Forward Chaining
  • Backward Chaining:
  • Backward Chaining with Leap Ahead
developing objectives
Developing Objectives

Objectives include…

  • Conditions: antecedents (given directions or situation)
  • Student
  • Behavior: observable, measurable /quantifiable
  • Criterion: accuracy, frequency, duration, latency

Let’s Develop Objectives for ….