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Learning to Implement a Home-Based ABA Program. Understanding aba. Chrissy McNair, Mom. Introductions. Melinda Henson, BCBA. Introductions . Gain Understanding of ABA Outcomes, Theories, Principles, and Guidelines Learn How to Assess Your Child’s Needs

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Presentation Transcript
session overview

Gain Understanding of ABA Outcomes, Theories, Principles, and Guidelines

Learn How to Assess Your Child’s Needs

Understand How to Set Goals for Your Child

Learn Methods for Prompting, Reinforcement, Generalization

Learn the Importance of Data Collection and Different Collection Methods

Session overview
today s session

PART ONE

      • ABA Overview
      • Types of ABA Programs
      • PART TWO
        • Principles of ABA
        • Diving into ABA Components
      • PART THREE
        • Designing Your Own Home Program
TODAY’S SESSION
aba facts myths
Myth

fact

  • ABA is an intervention.
  • ABA is actually a theory that encompasses many specific interventions based on principles of Behaviorism.
ABA Facts & myths
aba facts myths1
Myth

fact

  • ABA is specifically for autism.
  • ABA is used in a variety of fields to help change behaviors.
  • Examples: gambling, smoking, weight loss, teaching new skills
ABA Facts & myths
aba facts myths2
Myth

fact

  • ABA is discrete trial training.
  • Discrete trial training is one specific type of intervention that is based upon principles of ABA.
  • Examples of other interventions based in ABA: video modeling, incidental teaching, PRT, activity schedules
ABA Facts & myths
aba facts myths3
Myth

fact

  • ABA is based on punishments.
  • ABA focuses on the use of reinforcement.
ABA Facts & myths
aba facts myths4
Myth

fact

  • Principles of ABA promote simple, robotic skill development.
  • Principles of ABA can be used to teach complex behaviors that generalize across situations.
  • Examples: toileting, problem solving, dressing, social skills, language
ABA Facts & myths
aba facts myths5
Myth

fact

  • Principles of ABA are used only to reduce negative behaviors.
  • Principles of ABA are used to teach new skills and reduce negative behaviors.
ABA Facts & myths
aba is
ABA is….
  • Scientificapproach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

using aba at home

Structured Programs-Supervisors, Staff, Parents as Managers or Teachers

Dinner Table ABA

NEED GOALS, PROTOCOLS & PROCEDURES, ANALYSIS

Using aba at home
part 2 aba 101

REINFORCEMENT

PROMPTING

BEHAVIOR SHAPING

DATA COLLECTION

VERBAL BEHAVIOR

GENERALIZING SKILLS

PART 2 ABA 101
reinforcement

Reinforcement is KEY!

Preference Assessment (daily or weekly)

Differential Reinforcement

Continuous vs Intermittent

Fading Reinforcement

Reinforcement
reinforcement and asd

Many times, children with autism’s behaviors are not reinforced by naturally occurring consequences, or the naturally occurring reinforcement for negative behaviors outweigh those of positive behaviors

For this reason, we must sometimes use tangible items to reinforce specific behaviors

Reinforcement and ASD
reinforcement1

Reinforcement is what makes the behavior more likely to occur in the future.

  • Should immediately follow the behavior you want to strengthen.
  • Tips for strong reinforcement:
    • Conduct a preference assessment to see what your child/student enjoys
    • Vary reinforcement to prevent satiation
    • Provide higher levels of reinforcement for new responses and lower levels for more firmly established behaviors
    • Remember the definition of reinforcement!
Reinforcement
things that affect reinforcement

Deprivation: To keep toys, foods, and activities fun, save them for therapy or when you want to teach a difficult or new skill. Think: Absence makes the heart grow fonder….

  • Immediacy: Deliver reinforcement within a ½ second or you run the risk of them thinking that you are reinforcing anything that happened within the delay.
  • Size: Do not expect your student to work for an hour for a M ‘n’ M. The reinforcer should match the level of work that was done. Would you willingly work for a company that paid you less than you deserve?
  • Contingency: The reinforcement should be contingent on a behavior you want to see more of.
Things that affect reinforcement
levels of reinforcers
Levels of Reinforcers

Primary Reinforcers

Secondary Reinforcers

Generalized Reinforcers

Edibles

Tangible

Activities

Social Approval

Praise

Exchangeable

primary reinforcers

Primary reinforcers automatically fill some biological human need without learning

  • Examples:
    • Food (edibles), Water, Oxygen, Warmth
  • Advantages/Disadvantages of Edible Reinforcement:
    • Being fed is an basic need to survive & can be highly effective
    • Avoid if secondary or generalized reinforcers are equally effective
    • Check for food allergies and choking hazards
    • Avoid giving too much food before meal times
    • May not be effective if child is not hungry
Primary REINFORCERS
secondary reinforcers

Secondary reinforcers acquire their value through learning (through association with primary reinforcement)

  • Examples:
    • Tangibles, Activities, Social Approval, Praise
  • Advantages/Disadvantages of Secondary Reinforcers:
    • Disadvantages of edible reinforcement is avoided
    • More choices available
    • Social approval & praise is always available and reflects more natural/real-world reinforcement
    • Tangibles/activities may not be reinforcing every time they are presented
Secondary Reinforcers
generalized reinforcers

Generalized reinforcers have been paired with a variety of previously established reinforcers

  • Exchangeable Reinforcers/Token Systems:
    • Tokens are earned that can be exchanged later for access to reinforcement (e.g. money, stickers, points)
    • Token is given immediately following behavior, but actual reinforcing activity or item is given after a certain number of tokens are received.
  • Advantages/Disadvantages of Generalized Reinforcers
    • Tokens themselves are not initially reinforcing
    • Student must be able to delay reinforcement/understand that tokens add up to larger reinforcer
Generalized Reinforcers
schedules of reinforcement

A schedule of reinforcement determines how often the behavior should be reinforced

  • Continuous Reinforcement:
    • Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it occurs.
    • Used to teach and strengthen behavior.
    • Examples: Vending machine, ATM
  • Intermittent Reinforcement:
    • Reinforcing the desired behavior some of the time it is observed.
    • Used to maintain behavior.
    • Time-based or response-based
Schedules of Reinforcement
intermittent reinforcement

Advantages of Intermittent Reinforcement

    • More resistant to extinction
    • Results in relatively high rates of responding
    • More closely approximates natural reinforcement conditions
    • Less reinforcement from the outside allows for intrinsic motivations to begin to maintain behavior as competency increases
    • Less likely to create satiation
    • More cost effective
Intermittent Reinforcement
automatic reinforcement

Automatic reinforcement occurs when behaviors have an immediate affect on their environment which in turn reinforce the behavior.

    • Visual, Auditory, Gustatory, Olfactory, Tactile
  • These can be tough to compete with because they do not require social interaction – but we can figure out how to control some of them and present the child with these experiences during social interactions and exchanges.
Automatic Reinforcement
how to use reinforcement

Better reinforcement for better responding

    • Provide higher quality reinforcement for:
      • Unprompted responses
      • Faster responses
      • Better articulated responses
      • Proper tone is used
      • Correct response required a less intrusive prompt
      • No problem behavior occurring
How to use reinforcement
what about praise

Early learners may not work for praise

    • ALWAYS pair praise with back-up reinforcers
    • Eventually praise will become valuable
    • Gradually thin the use of back-up reinforcers
  • Advanced learners
    • Might work well for praise most of the time
    • Continue to sprinkle in back-up reinforcers
What about praise?
variety novelty choice

Including a variety of reinforcers helps decrease the chance of satiation

  • Novelty is often exciting to students
    • New things
    • Not knowing what is going to happen
  • When choice is given, the chances increase that the preferred item is really preferred at that time
Variety, Novelty, & Choice
how often should i reinforce

Each target behavior will be reinforced EVERY TIME until child/student shows that s/he can perform this behavior in a variety of environments without mistakes!

  • Generally, prompted behaviors should result in praise, while independent responses should result in praise + tangible, edible, etc…
  • Continuous Reinforcement:
    • Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it is observed
    • Used to teach and strengthen behavior
How Often Should I Reinforce?
tips for reinforcement

Give choices

  • Always keep a box of reinforcers next to you when working for quick access
  • Have a reinforcer in hand to immediately give to him
  • Give child/student multiple reinforcers from which to to choose
  • Place reinforcers in a “surprise grab bag” so child is surprised each time
  • Vary the reinforcement to avoid satiation
Tips for Reinforcement
3 step prompting

Compliance Building

1. Tell

2. Show

3. Do

Must be consistent with follow-through and be willing to implement step 3 if needed

3-Step prompting
behavior shaping
Behavior Shaping

Reinforcing even a slight approximation to the desired behavior

After that behavior is being replicated, only reinforce a closer approximation

  • Advantages
    • Used to teach new behaviors
    • It is a positive procedure
    • Can be combined with other procedures (fading, chaining, etc.)
  • Disadvantages
    • Time consuming
    • Progress is not always linear
    • Implementer needs some skill
collecting data

Must have all variables defined

Must be consistent across all collectors

Consider what variables you want to track

Collecting daTA
ways to analyze data

What do the scores tell you?

Visual interpretation better in graph vs. table form

WAYS TO ANALYZE DATA
generalizing skills

Across Environments

Across People

When to Generalize?

Building a Maintenance Schedule

GENERALIZING SKILLS
programming for generalization

Generalization occurs when behaviors learned under one set of circumstances occur:

    • At other times
    • In other places
    • With other people
    • For different stimuli
Programming for Generalization
programming for generalization1

Natural maintaining conditions

    • Practice the skill in naturally occurring situations and make sure it maintains during natural contingencies (antecedents & consequences)
  • Train sufficient exemplars
    • Teach the behavior to occur in the presence of many examples of stimuli that include the critical stimulus features
  • Train loosely
    • Prevent stimulus overselectivity by teaching in various settings, with various stimuli, in various forms
Programming for Generalization
programming for generalization2

Program common stimuli

    • Include as many of the physical and social elements that exist in the “real life” setting into the practice setting
  • Mediate generalization
    • Teach self-instruction techniques
Programming for Generalization
fluency

Fluency is performing a behavior smoothly, rapidly, correctly, and with ease.

  • Taught with repetition
  • Target speed & accuracy
  • Remember to include fluency in your goal as appropriate
  • Fluent skills maintain better across time
Fluency
maintenance

Maintenance is the ability to continue the behavior after intervention has ended.

  • What contributes to poor maintenance?
    • Ending reinforcement too soon
    • Reinforcement of unwanted behaviors
    • Punishing the behavior
Maintenance
interspersing maintenance
Interspersing Maintenance
  • When conducting trials, it is best to intersperse maintenance trials.
  • Alternate acquisition (learning) trials with learned concepts to:
    • Build momentum
    • Increase success & reinforcement
    • Increase practice of learned skills
    • Maintain skills over time
programming for maintenance

Minimize unwanted behaviors during initial learning (errorless teaching)

  • Be sure the behavior is fluent before ending intervention
  • Teach self-management strategies
    • Self-recording
    • Self-reinforcement
    • Asking for reinforcement
Programming for Maintenance
programming for maintenance1

Fade reinforcement slowly and transfer to natural contingencies

  • Fade antecedents from structured to natural
  • Adjust schedule, quality, & quantity of reinforcement
  • Increase criteria for reinforcement
  • Set up peer supports for reinforcement
Programming for Maintenance
part three building your own home program

Set Goals

Child’s Needs

Family’s Needs

Sibling’s Needs

Language/ Behavioral/ ….or Both

Part threebuilding your own home program
start small

Determine Motivators—Reinforcement

    • Immediate Reinforcement (toys, tickles, etc)
    • Longer Term Reinforcement (trips out in community)

Reserve these reinforcement objects ONLY for instruction time!

Start small
develop programs for week

Choose 4-6 Areas to Focus On

    • Motor Imitation
    • Following Directions
    • Tacting
    • Behavioral Skill
    • Social
    • Etc
Develop Programs for week
write procedures protocols

Make definitions as specific as possible

Write exactly what instructor needs to do

Define desired response from child

Define Mastery

Write procedures & protocols
develop data sheet for each program

Consider amount of learning opportunities needed to achieve mastery and fluency

    • Establish and follow steps to mastery!
  • Develop own sheets
  • Download
  • Copy from manual
Develop Data Sheet for EACh program
data sheet
Data Sheet

DataFP = Full prompt Delay0 = 0-s

PP= Partial prompt 2 = 2-s

I = Independent 4 = 4-s

E = ErrorN = No prompt

assessments curriculum guides
Assessments & Curriculum Guides

Verbal Behavior – Milestones Assessment and Placement Program

http://www.avbpress.com/vbmapp-set.html

Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills

http://www.behavioranalysts.com/shop/home.php