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Organs and their functions. Transplantable Organs . Heart Lungs(2) Liver Kidneys (2) Pancreas Small bowel. Kidneys. Functions Cleans & filters the blood Helps to regulate: Blood pressure Red blood cells Bone calcium Kidney Disease Cancer, alcohol, infection, high blood pressure.

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Presentation Transcript
transplantable organs
Transplantable Organs

Heart

Lungs(2)

Liver

Kidneys (2)

Pancreas

Small bowel

kidneys
Kidneys

Functions

Cleans & filters the blood

Helps to regulate:

Blood pressure

Red blood cells

Bone calcium

Kidney Disease

Cancer, alcohol, infection, high blood pressure

liver
Liver

Functions:Acts as a store

Secretes bile

Breaks down drugs

Produces clotting factors

Liver Disease

Hepatitis, cancer, autoimmune disease, overdose, alcohol

heart
Heart

Function

Acts as a pump to circulate the blood around the body

Heart Disease

Congenital, viral, lifestyle.

lungs
Lungs

Function

Gas exchange

Lung Disease

Congenital, viral, lifestyle.

Months to live – need a transplant

pancreas
Pancreas

Function

Produces enzymes to help digestion and hormones to maintain normal levels of sugar in the blood.

Pancreas Disease

Congenital, alcohol, diabetes

tissue donation
Tissue Donation

Cornea

Heart Valves

Tendons

Bone

Islet Cells

Skin

legislation
Legislation

In the United Kingdom two key laws govern organ donation and transplantation:

The Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006;

The Human Tissue Act 2004. (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 sets out the legal framework under which people can express their wish to leave parts of their body (organs and tissue) so that these can be used for transplantation after their death.

the human tissue scotland act 2006
Its main provisions are:

Any adult, or child aged 12 and over, who is able to make their own decisions, can give permission for their organs or tissue to be donated.

If you want to donate organs or tissue, this will be done in preference to any other requests which are made, for example leaving you body to medical science.

A person’s own decision is the most important thing. A relative does not have the right to change this decision after the person has died.

Children under the age of 12 cannot give permission themselves. If a child under the age of 12 dies, only their parent or guardian can give permission for their organs or tissue to be donated.

The Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006
opt in or opt out
Opt in or opt out?

At present, a person must express their wish to be a donor. This system is commonly known as ‘opt-in’.

A person who wishes to ‘opt-in’ puts his/her name on the NHS Organ Donor Register, maintained by NHS Blood and Transplant.

This is a national, confidential list of people who are willing to become donors after their death.

It can be quickly accessed by donor transplant co-ordinators or other healthcare professionals to see whether an individual has expressed willingness to be an organ donor.

expressing wishes
Ways in which people can express their wishes include:

Joining the NHS Organ Donor Register, online at

www.organdonation.nhs.uk

Telephone 0300 123 23 23

Telling their closest relatives or friends

Carrying a Donor Card

Writing it in a letter or document such as a will

Expressing wishes
what happens if a persons wishes are unknown
If no wish has been expressed in life then specially trained healthcare professionals should approach the family for their authorisation to proceed, based on their knowledge of the potential donor.

The law gives further guidance and specifies a ‘hierarchy’ of relatives in the order in which the healthcare professional is expected to approach them:

Spouse or civil partner; Living with the person as husband/wife or in a relationship which has the characteristics of civil partners for a period of not less than 6 months;

Child;

Parent;

Brother or sister;

Grandparent;

Grandchild;

Uncle or aunt;

Cousin;

Niece or nephew;

Friend of longstanding.

What happens if a persons wishes are unknown?
what happens if a persons wishes are unknown1
Sometimes it can be difficult to follow the hierarchy. The law recognises this and in some circumstances it is possible to:

• Ask someone lower down if an individual does not wish to or is unable to decide.

• Ask someone lower down where it is not reasonably practicable to discuss with the highest ranking relative (such as when the person is un-contactable e.g. flying home as their relative is gravely ill).

What happens if a persons wishes are unknown?