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Continuous Forest Inventory for the Northwest Region Bureau of Indian Affairs. Arnie Browning, Forester NWRO BIA Portland, OR. (503) 231-6205. National Overview. 565 Federally Recognized Tribes Recognized Tribes are in all but 17 states

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continuous forest inventory for the northwest region bureau of indian affairs

Continuous Forest Inventory for the Northwest Region Bureau of Indian Affairs

Arnie Browning, Forester

NWRO BIA Portland, OR.

(503) 231-6205

national overview
National Overview
  • 565 Federally Recognized Tribes
  • Recognized Tribes are in all but 17 states
  • 20 percent of American Indians reside on 314 reservations
  • 18 million acres of forest land on 317 reservations (8 MM acres timberland, 10 MM acres woodland)
  • 732 MMBF Annual Allowable Cut
historical overview
Historical Overview
  • 1776-1871 The Formative Years
    • 1830 Indian Removal Act
    • 1832 Chief Justice John Marshall’s Cases
  • 1871-1928 Allotment & Assimilation
    • 1887 General Allotment Act (Dawes Act)
    • 1909 PL 35 Stat. 781 creates Forestry Division

within Office of Indian Affairs

    • 1910 PL 33 Stat. 855 established timber sales on Indian land
  • 1828-1953 Indian Reorganization
    • 1934 Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard Act)

prohibited future allotment of land

  • 1953-1968 Termination Era
  • 1968-1982 Indian Self-Determination
  • 1982- present Self-Governance

- 1990 National Indian Forest Resources Management Act

Tribal Forestry Programs, Independent Assessment (IFMAT)

indian forestry program nationwide facts and figures
Indian Forestry ProgramNationwideFacts and Figures
  • Currently
    • 43 billion bd. Ft. of standing forest inventory on commercial forests
    • ~1.5% sustainable annual harvest
    • ~18 million acres of Trust forest
    • ~ 6 million acres of commercial timberland
  • FY 2003
    • 634 million board feet harvested
    • $62 million to the Tribal owners
    • 42 thousand acres thinned (PCT)
    • 14 thousand acres reforested
    • 157 thousand acres of fuels treated
    • >100 thousand acres of forest treated silviculturally in the commercial harvest
  • 5-Year Annual Average (1999-2003)
    • 622 million board feet harvested
    • $93 million to the Tribal owners
indian forest lands national summary timber availability harvest 1993 2003 millions of board feet
Entire forestry program

31 Self-Governance Compacts

26 Self-Determination Contracts

Portions of forestry program

6 Self-Governance Compacts

28 Self-Determination Contracts

Indian Self-DeterminationTribal Participation in Forest Management(91 Tribes Performing all or some of the Program)



five year indian harvest summary revenue by bia region 519 million to tribal owners 1998 2002
FIVE-YEAR INDIAN HARVEST SUMMARYREVENUE (% $) BY BIA REGION($519 million to Tribal owners)(1998 – 2002)





bia northwest region1
BIA Northwest Region
  • 2,664,000 acres timberland mostly on Category 1 reservations

(Category 1 defined as over 1MMBF AAC)

  • 385 MMBF Annual Allowable Cut
  • All Category 1 reservations have Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) plots except Grand Ronde. Many have Stand Inventory also.
history of cfi
History of CFI
  • Late 1940s Calvin B. Stott, USFS introduced CFI to Lake States
  • The original purpose of the CFI was to collect stocking, growth, removal, and mortality information indispensable to the establishment of broad management policies on large forest areas. (Stott, 1960)
steps in the cfi process
Steps in the CFI Process
  • Pre-Inventory
    • Review previous CFI Field Manual
    • Revise Manual for the re-measurement
    • Write data entry and edit program
  • Data collection and error checking
  • Regression analysis, more data cleaning
  • Write CFI program (VB 6 and Fortran 90)
  • Write User Manual and assist with program installation and operation
  • Assist with inventory analysis, growth and yield modeling, harvest scheduling, AAC.
changes in sample design
Changes in Sample Design
  • 1950 -1980
    • Cluster of 2 or 3 one-fifth or one-quarter acre subplots, usually on one-mile grid
    • 1/20th acre minor plot for height and form class
    • 1/100th acre minor plot for seedlings/saplings
    • Plot data: timber type, habitat type, slope, aspect, etc
    • Tree data: spc, dbh, crown ratio, height, tree history, problem/severity, age or age class, etc
    • Re-measure every 10 years
  • 1980 – present
    • re-measure only one plot per cluster (each subplot was always treated as an independent sample point)
    • Double the grid, usually ½ mile grid (more even-aged treatments, more stratification of the data)
    • Add snag data, fuel transect data, 3 tree problem/severity codes per tree (usually FVS codes), new height sample
changes in height sample
Changes in Height Sample
  • Before 1990
    • Measure total height on all trees 5 inches dbh and larger on 1/20th or 1/16th acre minor plot
  • After 1990
    • On 1/5 acre plot, measure total height on the first tree of each species in each 5 inch dbh class, and all trees 20 in. dbh and larger.
changes in height model
Changes in Height Model
  • 1950 – 1987
    • Ht = b0 + b1 DBH + b2 (DBH)2
    • (2nd or 3rd degree polynomial)
    • risky outside range of data, must “cap”
  • 1988 – 2002
    • Ht = 4.5 + exp (b0 + b1 / (DBH+1))
    • FVS (Wycoff,1982)
    • Usually stratify height sample by productivity class
  • 2002 – present
    • Ht = 4.5 + b0 (exp (-b1 (DBH)b2 ))
    • FPS (Arney, 1985)
comparison of ht models fvs
Comparison of Ht Models – FVS
  • Slightly over estimates at 5 – 10 inches dbh
  • Slight under estimates at large diameters
  • Almost always a reasonable model
fvs height model continued
FVS Height Model - continued
  • Height to Diameter correlation is reasonable even for small samples
fps height model
FPS Height Model
  • Usually slightly improved fit through the entire range of DBH (when compared with FVS height model)
  • Still getting experience with this model (only Warm Springs and Quinault)
plot the data and the model
Plot the data and the model
  • Our experience with FPS height model is limited; one unreasonable model so far.
  • Thanks to error-trapping in Flewelling taper code, we discovered this problem
western white pine on quinault
Western white pine on Quinault
  • When the cruisers showed us how Western white pine grows on the reservation, we reluctantly agreed to a small sample
  • “DBH” is at 34 feet above ground level of this pine growing out of an old cedar snag
cfi program options for volume and taper
CFI Program Options for Volume and Taper
  • Behre’s Hyperbola – Explained in 1983 Forest Mgt Inven. Handbook, App 1D
  • Form Class = DIB17/DBH
  • Used in CFIs from 1950s to present
  • Most DIB at 17 feet measured in 1970s to 1980s on CFI minor plots
form class
Form Class
  • “The theory of form class volume tables is that for a given height, trees vary in taper in the first log, but above the first log, taper is quite similar for trees of the same size and merchantable height, regardless of species.” (Bell, 1989).
  • Most of the taper is in the first log.
behre s hyperbola
Behre’s Hyperbola

BHT = THT - 17.3

RHT = THT - upper stem ht


D = L / (0.49 * L + 0.51)

DIB = DIB17 * D

bia volume method
BIA Volume Method
  • Use Behre’s Hyperbola to calculate DIB at top of each log
  • If dib >= 8.0 then

bd=(-.26875-.12375*dib +.049375*dib**2)* log length

  • If dib < 8.0 then

bd=(-083714 +.018569*dib +.059009*dib**2-.003894*dib**3)* log length

bia volume continued
BIA Volume (continued)

These regression formulas were developed by regressing the Factors published on page 38 of the Official Rules for the Log Scaling and Grading Bureaus,

January 1, 1982

west side taper coop
West-side Taper Coop
  • Completed May 2, 1994
  • For Douglas-Fir, Western Hemlock, and Western Redcedar
  • Quinault Tribe, Washington DNR, Industrial Forest Owners, contributed felled tree data
  • Data modeled by James Flewelling, PhD.
ingy taper coop
INGY Taper Coop
  • Distributed to INGY Members Sep. 1996
  • Sectioned tree data collected for AF,DF,ES,GF,LP,MH,PP,RC,SF,WF,WH, WL,WP
  • INGY participants included Flathead, Nez Perce, Spokane, and WS Tribes, Boise Cascade, Champion, Potlatch, DNR, USFS, BC Min of Forests
  • Modeled by James Flewelling, PhD.
uses of cfi data and programs
Uses of CFI data and programs
  • Document changes and trends in the forest; stocking, growth, harvest, mortality
  • Data used to calibrate growth and yield models (both FVS and FPS have used CFI data from reservation forests)
  • Harvest Scheduling, Annual Allowable Cut
  • Assess Forest Management Plans achievement of goals
boardfoot stocking trends
Boardfoot Stocking Trends

Colville, Spokane, Warm Springs, and Yakama

harvest vs net growth
Harvest vs. Net Growth

Colville, Warm Springs, Yakama