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Bureau of Indian Affairs. Evolution of the BIA. Established 1824 (oldest agency in the USDI)

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Evolution of the BIA

  • Established 1824 (oldest agency in the USDI)

  • Mission: “To enhance the quality of life, to promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives."

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What the BIA does…

  • Manages 66 million acres of land

  • 52.7 million acres are reservation land (jointly managed)

  • Liason between US Gov’t and 562 tribes

  • Provides educational services to 46,000 Indian children

  • Encourages economic development through tourism/recreation

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Recreational opportunities

  • Hunting (~ 300,000 visitor days annually)

  • Fishing (~800,000 visitor days)

  • Museums & other attractions

  • Lodges, Hotels, Campgrounds

  • Casinos

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Kee-Na-Ta Resort & Casino

Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

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Skywalk, West Rim Grand Canyon, AZ

Hualapai Indian Nation

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Four agencies involved in water-based recreation

  • Tennessee Valley Authority

  • Bureau of Reclamation

  • Army Corps of Engineers

  • Sea Grant

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Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965

Ordered reservoir-managing agencies to provide recreation.

  • Tennessee Valley Authority

  • Bureau of Reclamation

  • Army Corps of Engineers

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Tennessee Valley Authority

  • A regional development agency that:

    • is the largest public power company in the United States,

    • manages the Tennessee River watershed,

    • fosters economic development in the Tennessee Valley Area.

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Creation of TVA

  • Created in 1933

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TVA Recreation Areas

  • Manages about 100 recreation areas, campgrounds, & boat launch sites in 49 dams & reservoirs


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Recreation Areas

Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area (formerly TVA – now FS)


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TVA Recreation Areas

  • Ocoee River Gorge 1996 Olympic whitewater kayak course

  • Ocoee River whitewater rafting area - 200,000 visitors per year

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USDI Bureau of Reclamation center

  • Second largest producer of hydropower in the U. S.

  • Largest water supplier in US.

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Establishment of BR center

National Reclamation Act of 1902

Authorized the Secretary of the Interior to develop hydropower and irrigation projects in 17 western states.

Hoover Dam turbines

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Recreation at BR sites states.

  • Manages 8 National Recreation Areas

  • Constructed over 600 reservoir sites

  • Manages 348 reservoirs (most permit recreation)

  • Recreation sites are frequently managed by other government agencies after construction

  • 90 Million visitors/year

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Recreational Facilities states.

  • Visitor centers and guided tours at major dam facilities.

Hoover Dam

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Recreational Activities states.

  • Water-based recreation

Waterskiing on Lake Mead, Nevada.

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Black Canyon Dam, ID states.

1,100 acre reservoir

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Altus Lake and Dam, OK states.




ATV use


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Army Corps of Engineers states.

  • Fifth largest electrical supplier in the US.

  • Largest hydropower supplier in the US.

Lake Sonoma, CA.

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Mission states.

  • Constructing and managing water control facilities.

  • Constructing military facilities for the U.S. Army.

Military construction

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Creation of USACE states.

  • Bunker Hill fortifications built in 1775 by first Chief Engineer.

  • Constructed West Point Military Academy in 1802. Managed it until 1866.

Bunker Hill

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Sonoma Lake, CA states.

  • Campgrounds

Campground at Sonoma Lake, CA

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Sonoma Lake, CA states.

  • Hiking trails

Sonoma Lake trail system

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Sonoma Lake, CA states.

Views from trails.

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Upper Mississippi River states.

Manages 13 locks & dams in MN, WI, & IA

Purposes: Navigation (commercial & recreational), flood control, wildlife management

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Upper Mississippi River states.

Lock control building

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Upper Mississippi River states.

Dredge boat “William A. Thompson” and relocation of dredged materials

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Upper Mississippi River states.

Guttenberg waterfowl ponds at Lock 10

(Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge, IA)

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Upper Mississippi River states.

Forest management in 28,000 acres of shoreline.

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National Sea Grant states.College Program


  • Conduct coastal research

  • Educate public about coastal issues

    SG is NOT a land manager

NOAA Research Vessel

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National Sea Grant College states.Program Act of 1966

  • Established a Sea Grant program in each coastal state.

  • National administration by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

  • State administration at state’s land grant college.

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National Sea Grant states.College Program

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Great Lakes District states.






Marine District


Stony Brook



NY Sea Grant

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Topics states.

  • Recreation & tourism

  • Coastal businesses & facilities

  • Fisheries

  • Coastal erosion

  • Exotic species

  • Coastal habitat protection

  • Seafood safety

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Coast Watch Program states.

Great Lakes surface temperature monitoring program

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Recreation & Tourism Program states.

  • Conduct tourism and recreation-related research.

  • Communicate research results to the public.

  • Facilitate tourism planning and development efforts.

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Recent Recreation-related Efforts states.

  • Birdwatching

  • Charter boat business

  • B&B business

  • Monitoring recreation trends

  • Sportfishing motivations