Chapter 13 Subcultures and Consumer Behavior
Subculture A distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.
Figure 13.1 Relationship Between Culture and Subculture Subcultural Traits of Hispanic Americans Dominant Cultural Traits of U.S. Citizens Subcultural Traits of Asian Americans
Table 13.1 Examples of Major Subcultural Categories CATEGORIES EXAMPLES Nationality French, Puerto Rican, Korean Religion Catholic, Hindu, Jew Geographic region Southeastern, Midwestern, Eastern Race African-American, Caucasian, Asian-American Age Teens, Xers, middle age, elderly Gender Female, Male Occupation Engineer, cook, plumber Social class Lower, middle, upper
Issues in Studying Hispanic Subcultures • Hispanic Consumer Behavior • Stronger preference for well-established brands • Prefer to shop at smaller stores • Some are shifting food shopping to non-ethnic American-style supermarkets • Youths are more fashion-conscious • Defining and Segmenting the Hispanic Market • Six ways of defining and segmenting the market
Table 13.2 Traditional Characteristics of the Hispanic American Market Prefer well-known or familiar brands Buy brands perceived to be more prestigious Are fashion-conscious Historically prefer to shop at smaller personal stores Buy brands advertised by their ethnic-group stores Tend not to be impulse buyers (i.e., are deliberate) Increasingly clipping and using cents-off coupons Likely to buy what their parents bought Prefer fresh to frozen or prepared items Tend to be negative about marketing practices and government intervention in business
Table 13.3 Ways in Which “Hispanic” Has Been Defined NAME OF INDICATOR NATURE/SCOPE AND COMMENTARY Spanish surname Not a definitive; since a non-Hispanic person might have a Spanish surname, or an Hispanic person might have a non-Spanish surname. Country of origin The birthplace of persons born in the Untied States of Hispanic parents would not reveal their Hispanic background. Country of family ancestry Includes those individuals who may not be Hispanic despite coming form a particular Spanish-Latin country. Spanish spoken at home A significant minority of Hispanic households may speak English at home, yet consider themselves to be cultural Hispanic. Self-identification It is reasonable that if an adequate number of self-report choices are offered, a person might identify himself or herself as “Hispanic.” Degree of identification This measure captures the “degree” of personal identification as “Hispanic” and augments the self-identification measure.
Table 13.4 A Comparison of Jewish and General Population with Respect to Travel-Related Behavior BEHAVIOR JEWISH MEDIA READER TOTAL U.S. AVERAGE Taken a trip outside the U.S. within the past 3 years 60.3% 18.4% Taken 10 or more trips outside the U.S. within the last 3 years 6.9% 1.2% Taken a cruise within the past 3 years 31.4% 6.4% Belong to a frequent flier program 67.5% 9.1% Personally rented a car within the past 12 months 48.1% 11.4%
Table 13.5 Product Purchase/Usage by Leading Metropolitan Market PRODUCT PURCHASE/USAGE HIGHEST PURCHASE/ USAGE LOWEST PURCHASE/ USAGE Own Rollerblades/in-line skates Detroit Dallas New domestic car Detroit San Francisco New imported car Washington, D.C. Detroit Have life insurance Cleveland San Francisco Drink Scotch whiskey Dallas Cleveland Purchased men’s jeans Cleveland New York Have a bowling ball Detroit Boston Use eyeliner Dallas Philadelphia Use artificial sweeteners Dallas-Fort Worth San Francisco Used cough syrup (past 6 months) Chicago Washington, D.C. Popcorn (past 6 months) Detroit New York Lottery tickets (past 12 months) Cleveland Washington, D.C.
Major Racial Subcultures • The African-American Consumer • Largest racial minority in U.S. • Purchasing power estimated at $469 billion • Asian-American Consumers • Currently about 10 million in size • Estimated at 10.9 million in 2001 • Gain of almost 50% since 1990
Table 13.6 Comparison of Purchase Patterns of White, African American, and Hispanic American Households PRODUCT/ACTIVITY ANGLO WHITE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC AMERICAN Purchased men’s jeans 105 69 104 Dress shoes 99 104 85 Women’s designer jeans 96 118 117 Regular women’s jeans 103 80 100 Have a bowling ball 109 40 58 Have a rifle 112 22 72 Noncola soft drink 2+ glasses in past 7 days 104 69 92 Diet-cola soft drink 2+ glasses in past 7 days 108 59 82 Cough syrup 2+ times in past 30 days 92 155 120 Baby powder 5+ times in past 7 days 97 129 146 Hair coloring past 6 months 98 116 126 Women’s eyeliner 100 95 117
Reaching the African-American Audience • Two Alternate Strategies • Running all the advertising in general mass media • Running additional advertising at special advertising in selected media directed exclusively to African-Americans
Asian-American Consumers • Where Are the Asian-Americans? • Largely urban • Asian-Americans As Consumers • Buying power of $110 billion annually • Brand loyal customers • Frequently male-oriented consumer decisions • Attracted to retailers who welcome Asian-American patronage
Age Subcultures Age subgroupings of the population.
Major Age Subcultures Generation X Market Baby Boomer Market Seniors Market
Generation X The 18- to 29-year-old post baby boomer segment (also referred to as Xers or busters).
Baby Boomers Individuals born between 1946 and 1964 (approximately 45% of the adult population).
Seniors Generally older consumers. Consist of subcultures including the 50-plus market and the “elderly consumers” market.
Table 13.7 A Comparison of Generation X and Baby Boomers: As Seen by Xers CATEGORY GENERATION X BABY BOOMERS Favorite TV Mom Mrs. Brady June Cleaver Scariest Movie Silence of the Lambs The Blob Lost Poet Musician Kurt Cobain Jim Morrison Childhood Athlete Michael Jordan O.J. Simpson Life Changing Movie Heathers Easy Rider Haunting Assassination John Lennon John F. Kennedy Most Annoying Fad Body Piercing Hula Hoops Way Back When... Vanilla Ice Barry Manilow Fashion Faux Pas Parachute Pants Bell Bottoms Rallying Cry AIDS, Crime Vietnam Kennedy? MTV-VJ Former President
Issues in Understanding Older Consumer • Defining “Older” in Older Consumer • Segmenting the Elderly Market • Shopping Experiences of the Older Consumer
Table 13.8 Length of Lifestyle for the U.S. Consumer AGE COHORT LENGTH OF LIFESTYLE Childhood (0-17) 17 Early adulthood (18-34) 16 Middle adulthood (35-49) 14 Later adulthood 29+
Table 13.9 Comparison of New-Age and Traditional Elderly NEW-AGE ELDERLY TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY • Perceive themselves to be different in outlook from other people their age • Perceive all older people to be about the same in outlook • Age is seen as a state of mind • See age as more of a physical state • See themselves as younger than their chronological age • See themselves at or near their chronological age • Feel younger, think younger, and “do” younger • Tend to feel, think, and do things that they feel match their chronological age • Have a genuinely youthful outlook • Feel that one should act one’s age • Feel there is a considerable adventure to living
Table 13.9 continued NEW-AGE ELDERLY TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY • Feel more in control of their own lives • Normal sense of being in control of their own lives • Have greater self-confidence when it comes to making consumer decisions • Normal range of self-confidence when it comes to making consumer decisions • Less concerned that they will make a mistake when buying something • Some concern that they will make a mistake when buying something • Especially knowledgeable and alert consumers • Low-to-average consumer capabilities • Selectively innovative • Not innovative • Seek new experiences and personal challenges • Seek stability and a secure routine
Table 13.9 continued NEW-AGE ELDERLY TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY • Less interested in accumulating possessions • Normal range of interest in accumulating possessions • Higher measured life satisfaction • Lower measured life satisfaction • Less likely to want to live their lives over differently • Have some regrets as to how they lived their lives • Perceive themselves to be healthier • Perceive themselves to be of normal health for their age • Feel financially more secure • Somewhat concerned about financial security
Issues in Understanding Sex as a Subculture • Sex Roles and Consumer Behavior • Masculine vs. Feminine Traits • The Working Woman • Segmentation Issues • Shopping Patterns
Table 13.10 How Women Control the Purse Strings Women control or influence… 80% of all purchase decisions 80% of new vehicle purchases 46% of menswear purchases 82% of supermarket purchases 53% of investment decisions 70% of appliance choices Women also… handle 75% of family finances constitute 40% of business travel are 43% of the persons with assets over $500,000