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The Development of Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology. Symbolic Interaction. Structural - Functional Analysis. Conflict. Disciplined Eclecticism. Theoretical Perspective. The term “ theoretical perspective ” refers to broad assumptions about society and social behavior that serve

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slide1

The Development of Theoretical

Perspectives in Sociology

Symbolic Interaction

Structural - Functional Analysis

Conflict

Disciplined Eclecticism

slide2

Theoretical Perspective

The term “theoretical perspective” refers to broad

assumptions about society and social behavior that serve

as a point of departure for sociological thinking and

research.

It focuses the analysts attention on some

aspects of the social world rather than others;

It defines some questions as especially relevant and

important and others as trivial and uninteresting.

In addition, these perspectives may be considered as

interpretative schemes: they offer a framework for

interpreting the results of specific studies.

slide3

Perspectives will

both facilitate

&

constrain perception

slide4

The Analogy of Using a

Flashlight in a Dark Room

slide5

The Burke Theorem

“A way of seeing is also a way

of not seeing - a focus upon

object A involves a neglect of

object B.”

Kenneth Burke

Literary Philosopher

1897-1993

slide6

Maslow’s Hammer

An over-reliance on a familiar tool

“It is tempting, if the only tool you have is

a hammer, to treat everything as if it were

a nail.”

The Psychology of Science, p. 15, 1966.

Abraham Maslow

1908 – 1970

slide7

Theoretical Perspective

No one perspective has successfully dealt with the entire range of

sociologically interesting questions. Starting with different sets of

assumptions, each perspective – structural-functionalist, conflict,

symbolic interactionist, and disciplined eclecticism – focuses on a

different range of social phenomena and, as a result, raises different

questions.

They should not, however, be thought of as being necessarily at odds

with one another. Although sociologists adhering to different

perspectives have marked disagreements with one another about the

nature of the social world, these perspectives are not necessarily

contradictory, nor mutually exclusive.

As one noted theorist has commented, “Many ideas in structural analysis

and symbolic interactionism . . . are opposed to one another in about the

same sense as ham is opposed to eggs: they are perceptively different but

mutually enriching” (Merton, 1976). Together, these three perspectives

provide a broader and deeper understanding of the world.

slide9

“A Beethoven string-quartet is truly, as some one has said,

a scraping of horses’ tails on cats’ bowels, and may be

exhaustively described in such terms; but the application

of this description in no way precludes the simultaneous

applicability of an entirely different description.”

William James, The Sentiment of Rationality, 1882

slide10

What is a

Human being?

Intellectual Setting - Review

slide11

Original Sin

Michelangelo, Fall From Grace

slide13

Human Beings

are constrained

by their heredity:

“Blood Tells”

slide15

“The Apple Doesn’t Fall

Far From the Tree”

slide16

Human Beings

are bundles of

Instincts

slide17

William James: Instincts

Instinct: - “the faculty of acting

in such a way as to produce certain

ends, without foresight of the end,

or without previous education in

the performance.”

i.e, climbing, emulation, rivalry,

pugnacity, anger, resentment,

hunting, jealousy

Principles of Psychology, 1890

1842-1910

slide18

Human Beings

are Learning

Machines

slide19

“Behaviorism” - John B. Watson

“Give me a dozen healthy infants,

well-formed, and my own specified

world to bring them up in and I’ll

guarantee to take any one at random

and train him to become any type

of specialist I might select – doctor,

lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and,

yes, even beggar-man and thief,

regardless of his talents, penchants,

tendencies, abilities, vocations, and

race of his ancestors.”

John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1924

1878-1958

slide20

B. F. Skinner

1904 - 1990

S

R

rewards

punishments

slide21

Human Beings

are driven by

Unconscious

Motivations

slide22

Id Superego

[Nature] [Nurture]

Ego

[Self]

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

slide23

Human Beings are

“Personalities”

slide25

Human Beings

are Rational

Cost-Benefit

Analysts

slide26

Deterrence Theory

The human being is a rational actor

Rationality involves an end/means calculation,

People (freely) choose all behavior, both

conforming and deviant, based on their rational

calculations - the central element of calculation

involves a “cost benefit analysis”

Choice, with all other conditions equal, will be

directed towards the maximization of individual

benefit

Choice can be controlled through the imposition

of punishment that is “swift, certain, and severe.”

Jeremy Bentham

“utilitarianism”

1748 - 1832

slide27

Human Beings

are driven by the

“interests” of their

Social Class

slide28

“. . . here individuals are dealt with only in so far as they are the

personifications of economic categories, embodiments of particular

class-relations and class-interests.”

Karl Marx, Capital, 1867

slide29

Human Beings are

Cultural Products

slide30

The Importance of Culture

Franz Boas

Boas, an anthropologist, embarked

on a life-long assault on the idea that

biology—race, in particular, was a

primary source of the differences to

be found in the mental or social

capabilities of human groups.

History, experience, and cultural

differences supply the answer.

1858-1942

slide31

Units of Analysis

Macro-level

Micro-level

Dyad

Individual

slide33

Units of Analysis

Macro-level

Micro-level

Group

Dyad

Individual

Triad

slide35

Units of Analysis

Macro-level

Micro-level

Social

Institutions

Group

Dyad

Formal Org

Bureaucracy

Individual

Triad

slide36

Social Institutions

Education

Family

Religion

Polity

Science

Economy

slide37

Units of Analysis

Macro-level

Micro-level

Social

Institutions

Group

Dyad

Formal Org

Bureaucracy

Society

Individual

Triad

slide38

Politics

The Social System

Economy

Science

Family

Education

Institutional

Autonomy &

Interdependence

Religion

slide39

Units of Analysis

Macro-level

Micro-level

Structural-Functional

Symbolic Interaction

Conflict

Social

Institutions

World

Group

Dyad

Formal Org

Bureaucracy

Society

Individual

Triad

slide40

Symbolic

Interaction

slide41

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

George Herbert Mead

Mead – and others who followed his footsteps – believed

that previous approaches ignored the fundamental fact

that individuals “think” – they actively perceive, define,

and interpret the world around them.

Rather than see the actor as a passive puppet blindly

responding to stimuli – as did Watson (in Mead’s view) –

Mead wanted to understand what goes on between

stimulus and response. Do all individuals interpret and

define the stimulus in the same manner?

1863 - 1931

slide42

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

George Herbert Mead

According to Mead, we can train a dog using reward

and punishment – the behaviorist approach advocated

by Watson – but the dog does not attach meaning to its

actions.

A dog responds to what you do, but a human responds to

what you have in mind as you do it.

You can train a dog to fetch your umbrella from the

hallway, but if he can’t find it, not knowing your true

intention, it won’t now look for your raincoat.

1863 - 1931

slide43

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

George Herbert Mead

Rather than see individuals behavior largely affected by

either psychological factors – as did Freud – or genetically

determined impulses – as did Davenport, over which people

had no control, Mead wanted to focus on how actors,

when confronted with situations,

define the objects and situation they encounter,

(2) creatively think about possible modes of conduct,

(3) imagine the consequences of alternative courses of

action,

(4) eliminate unlikely possibilities, and finally

1863 - 1931

(5) select what they believe to be the best course of action.

slide44

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

George Herbert Mead

Rather than focus attention on the larger structure of

society – the inequalities inherent in a capitalist economy

that were stressed by Marx – Mead wanted to focus on

the practical face-to-face, day-to-day activities of people

in their more immediate social setting. How do they

communicate? How are “symbols” created, defined, and

shared by interacting individuals? How is “reality”

socially constructed from the ground up?

Since action is created by the actor out of what he

perceives, interprets, and judges, to fully understand it

the analyst would have to see the situation as

the actor sees it, perceive objects as the actor perceives

them, ascertain the meanings they have for the actor,

and follow the actor’s line of conduct as the actor

organizes it and modifies it during its course.

1863 - 1931

slide45

The “Subjective Element” in Social Action

The Thomas Theorem

“The Definition of the Situation”

“If men define situations as real, they are

real in their consequences.”

Interpretative flexibility

W. I. Thomas

1863-1947

slide46

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

Charles Horton Cooley

How do we acquire a sense of “self?”

“Looking-glass self”

“Each to each a looking glass

Reflects the other that doth pass.”

Three elements:

The imagination of our appearance to the

other person

1864-1929

The imagination of his judgment of that

appearance

3. Some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or

mortification.

slide47

Symbolic Interactionist Approach

Charles Horton Cooley

How do we acquire a sense of “self?”

“Primary Groups”

“By primary groups I mean those

characterized by intimate face-to-face

associations and cooperation. They are

primary in several senses, but chiefly in

that they are fundamental in forming

the social nature and ideals of the

individual.”

1864-1929

slide48

Symbolic Interaction

Herbert Blumer

1900-1987

How do people go about creating, defining, sharing and

using “symbols” to facilitate interaction?

“Interpretative flexibility”

slide49

What is a “Symbol?”

Anything that stands for something other than itself.

Anything that carries a particular meaning that is recognized

and shared by people.

A word

A hairstyle

A cross

A whistle

A piece of jewelry on a finger

A flashing light

A flag

A raised fist

A gesture

A manner of dressing

slide53

All the world’s a stage,

And all the men and women merely players.

They have their exits and their entrances;

And one man in his time plays many parts . . .

As You Like It. Act ii. Sc. 7.

slide55

1564-1616

Of the first eighteen years of his life NOTHING is known.

They are a blank.

There is nothing in the papers of his literary contemporaries

which refer to Shakespere as a fellow writer.

The most detailed theatrical records of the time, those of

Phillip Henslowe the proprietor of several London theatres

make no reference to “Shake-speare” although other actors

are named as well as playwrights

slide56

What knowledge did the author have to possess

to be capable of writing the plays and sonnets?

Life in the royal court.

Falconing and other sports of the privileged class.

Military strategy and terminology.

Classical education.

The plays and poetry of “Shake-speare” reveal a person who

received the best education available, yet there is no record of

Shakspere attending Stratford Grammar School nor either

University or the Inns of Court. Nor do we have any record of

him being in the household of a great family where he could

have received an education.

slide57

His death went entirely unnoticed by the literary

world compared, for example, with that of Beaumont,

who died the same year, Spenser and Ben Jonson all

of whom were mourned with much ceremony.

Shakespeare’s Last Will and Testament

It is a thoroughgoing business man's will. It named in minute

detail every item of property he owned in the world - houses,

lands, sword, silver-gilt bowl, and so on - all the way down to his

"second-best bed" and its furniture.

He left his wife that "second-best bed."

And NOT ANOTHER THING; not even a penny.

slide58

It mentioned NOT A SINGLE BOOK.

Books were much more precious than swords and silver-gilt

bowls and second-best beds in those days, and when a departing

person owned one he gave it a high place in his will.

The will mentioned NOT A PLAY, NOT A POEM, NOT AN

UNFINISHED LITERARY WORK, NOT A SCRAP OF

MANUSCRIPT OF ANY KIND.

The only written works of Shakspere to come down to us are

six signatures, three on the pages of his will and three on

legal documents.

slide59

Edward de Vere

Earl of Oxford

1550-1604

Christopher Marlowe

1554-1593

slide60

The “Dramaturgical Perspective”

Actor

Social Roles

Scripts

Props

Rehearsal

Erving Goffman

1922-1982

slide62

The “Dramaturgical Perspective”

Actor

Social Roles

Scripts

Props

Rehearsal

Front Stage vs. Back Stage

Erving Goffman

1922-1982

Evaluation of Role Performance

slide63

The “Dramaturgical Perspective”

The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life

“impression management”

Behavior in Public Places

taken-for-granted rules and procedures of interaction;

“expressions-given” vs. “expressions-given-off”

Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity

Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior

“embarrassment” as a social phenomenon

“face-work”

slide64

Theory of Differential Association

Edwin Sutherland

1. Criminal behavior is learned.

2. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other

persons in a process of communication.

3. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior

occurs within intimate personal groups.

4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning

includes techniques of committing the crime, which

are sometimes very complicated, sometimes simple and

the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations,

and attitudes.

1883 - 1950

According to Sutherland, the process of learning criminal behavior by

association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the

mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.

slide65

Labeling

Howard Becker

Labeling theory focuses on the reaction of other people and the

subsequent effects of those reactions which create deviance. When it

becomes known that a person has engaged in deviant acts – or if it is

widely believed to be so – she or he is then treated differently by others.

They are labeled, “whore,”“thief,”“abuser,”“junkie,” and the like.

Becker noted that this process creates “outsiders,” who are outcast

from society, and then begin to associate with other individuals who have

also been cast out. When more and more people begin to think of these

individuals as deviants, they respond to them as such; the deviant

reacts to such a response by continuing to engage in the behavior society

now expects from them.

slide66

The Self-fulfilling Prophecy

“In the beginning, a false definition of a

situation that is socially shared and leads

to new behavior that makes the initially

false definition come true.”

False definition: “the bank is failing”

Behavior: people run to the bank to

withdraw their money.

Robert K. Merton

1910 - 2003

Consequence: the bank fails

slide67

Individuals as

Status-Occupants

“only insofar as”

slide69

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Interests

[Conflict is built-in society.]

Power & Authority

Social Capital

[Access to Opportunities and Resources]

[Inequality is built-in society]

slide70

Obligations and Responsibilities

What am I supposed to do?

Where do these come from?

Social Status

How do they change over historical

time? - ie., fathers and parenting

The extent to which individuals who

occupy a given status live up to the

responsibilities and obligations that

are called for varies.

Individuals who occupy a given status

must take these into account.

“Family resemblances,”“social fugues”

slide71

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

slide72

Normative Expectations (Rules)

How am I supposed to do all this?

Guidelines, rules for social conduct.

They indicate how one “ought” to act or

behave in social settings:

Prescribe - Proscribe

Permitted - Preferred

Social Status

Norms vary from one culture to another.

Norms vary from one sub-culture to another.

Norms vary over historical time.

slide73

Normative Expectations (Rules)

How am I supposed to do all this?

Do not confuse “norms” with actual

action or behavior.

Social Status

The extent to which people consider

norms legitimate varies.

The extent to which people comply with

norms varies.

Norms vary in their importance:

Folkways - norms for routine or casual interactions

Mores - norms that are derived from moral values

Laws - norms that are codified and are sanctioned

Taboos

slide74

S

T

A

B

I

L

I

T

Y

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Mutually reinforcing and reciprocal

expectations

Whether we recognize it or not, we

possess a vast storehouse of “social

knowledge” and, to varying degrees,

know what is expected of us & know

what to expect of others.

slide75

S

T

A

B

I

L

I

T

Y

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Interests

[Conflict is built-in society.]

slide76

Interests

Conflict is built-in society.

Conflict is built-in to the very fabric of

society. It is as normal - and healthy - as

the air we breathe and most often occurs

in socially patterned ways.

Social Status

People who occupy different social

positions - by virtue of occupying different

positions - will have different sets of

LEGITIMATE interests, values and

attitudes.

The vast majority of conflict that occurs in society is the

result of people - status-occupants - living up to the

expectations placed upon them.

slide77

Interests

Conflict is built-in society.

Social Status

If conflict is built-in to the very fabric of

society, how is it managed?

What are the patterns and functions of

conflict?

How are conflicts - whether legitimate or

not - resolved?

slide78

S

T

A

B

I

L

I

T

Y

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Interests

[Conflict is built-in society.]

Power & Authority

slide79

Power & Authority

Power: the capacity to impose one’s will

over others, even against the resistance

of others; coercion.

Social Status

Authority: the capacity to have others

comply with your wishes - even if they

would prefer not to - because they

recognize the legitimacy of the request.

Power and authority are not individual attributes, they are

located in the positions people occupy; ie., the President.

The extent to which power is exercised by status-occupants vary;

ie., Eisenhower and Nixon (impeachment).

slide80

Power & Authority

Power and authority are not equally

distributed in all social statuses:

Social Status

Employer - employee;

male - female;

professor - student;

Dean - professor;

wealthy - poor;

white - non-white

As a result, we should expect different outcomes in society:

racial disparities in sentencing;

unequal pay for men and women

slide81

S

T

A

B

I

L

I

T

Y

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Interests

[Conflict is built-in society.]

Power & Authority

Social Capital

[Access to Opportunities and Resources]

[Inequality is built-in society]

slide82

Social Capital

Access to Opportunities and Resources

Inequality is built-in society

Social Status

“Central or Controlling Statuses”

Different statuses provide occupants

different degrees of access to resources

and opportunities - some more, some

less.

slide83

S

T

A

B

I

L

I

T

Y

Obligations and Responsibilities

[What am I supposed to do?]

Normative Expectations (Rules)

[How am I supposed to do all this?]

Social Status

Cognitive Attributes: Beliefs, Values,

Motivations and Attitudes

Interests

[Conflict is built-in society.]

Power & Authority

Social Capital

[Access to Opportunities and Resources]

[Inequality is built-in society]

slide86

Status-sets

“identities”

Father

Uncle

Age:

62

Race:

“White”

Professor

Executive

Director

Friend

Status-Activation & “Salient Statuses”

Since individuals occupy multiple statuses, which specific status

becomes activated at any given time? How is this “socially

negotiated” by partners in interactions? How are discrepant

activations resolved?

slide87

Status-sets

“identities”

Father

Uncle

Age:

62

Race:

“White”

Professor

Executive

Director

Friend

Since individuals occupy multiple statuses they are subject to

“cross-pressures.”

“Status-consistency” - to what extent are the beliefs, values

attitudes, interests and social standing

attached to different statuses in an

individual’s status-set consistent?

How are the inevitable inconsistencies

that arise managed?

slide89

Master and Dominant Statuses

Master status: that status within an individual’s status-set that

has special importance for social identity, often

shaping a person’s entire life.

Dominant status: that status within an individual’s status-set that

is given priority when the behavioral expectations

associated with two or more statuses come into

conflict.

slide90

Status-conflict; Status-strain

Father

Uncle

Age

62

Race:

“White”

Professor

Executive

Director

Friend

Conflict: living up to the demands and obligations of one status

precludes fulfilling the demands and obligations of

another status.

Strain: you can fulfill all of your demands and obligations but at less than peak efficiency. You “prioritize” and cut corners.

slide91

Status-sets & Institutional Interdependence

Familial

Economic

Religious

Political

Educational

Science

The Protestant Ethic and

The Spirit of Capitalism

The Puritan Spur

to Science

slide93

Physician

Patient

- “concern”

“detached”

slide94

Role-set corresponding to the status of “Professor”

Professor

Students

Colleagues

Deans

Support

Staff

Community

slide95

Professor

Students

Colleagues

Deans

Support

Staff

Community

slide96

Status-conflict or

Status-strain

Role-conflict or

Role-strain

slide97

The Ubiquity/Inevitability of Conflict

Conflict is built-in to the very fabric of society. It is as

normal - and healthy - as the air we breathe and most

often occurs in socially patterned ways.

People who occupy different social positions - by virtue

of occupying different positions - will have different sets

of LEGITIMATE interests, values and attitudes.

These differences may be exacerbated by political differences and

an all too familiar pattern appears:

(1) Circling the wagons and polarizing the issues

(2) Drawing and responding to caricatures of opponents

(3) Selective perception

(4) Talking past one another - looking to “score” off the other person

slide98

The Communication Process

WHO says

Attributes of the “source,” ie. credibility

The content of the message: levels of meaning;

Differential & selective perception

WHAT

to WHOM

The target audience

through which

CHANNEL

Formal; mass media

Informal; interpersonal

in what WAY

Rhetorical Strategy: Logic, Emotion

with what

EFFECT?

Reinforcement; Conversion

“The Popeye Effect”

slide99

WHO

Credibility

WHAT

Issue vs.

Image

WHOM

Target

Audience

WAY

Rhetorical

Strategy

CHANNEL

Audio,

Visual,

Interpersonal

Effects

Activation

Crystallization

Reinforcement

Conversion

slide109

The “Popeye Effect”

Messages “sent” are not necessarily the same as

messages “received.”

WHY???

Messages are often misperceived or have a “boomerang effect”

because the source of the information is not believed to be credible.

Messages often contain multiple levels of information and meaning.

Through the operation of “selective perception,” the particular

aspect of the message one “plugs into” or is most attentive to -

and the interpretation one gives to a message, often depends

upon the social background - the social status - of the receiver.

slide110

Visualizing Society

as a

Social System

slide111

Structural – Functional

Analysis

Social Systems

slide112

Structural – Functional Analysis

Harvard University

Robert K. Merton

1910 - 2003

Talcott Parsons

1902 - 1979

slide113

Biological

System

Walter B. Cannon

1871 - 1945

slide114

System

A system is made up of different parts.

Parts can beindependently isolated and analyzed.

How does each contribute to the smooth operation of

the total system? Whatfunctions do they serve?

Parts are interdependent. Whatever happens in one part

reverberates throughout the entire system.

How does each part affect all of the others?

The normal state of the system isequilibrium and stability.

How is it maintained?

slide115

The Social System

1. Identify thepartsof the system

Biological System Social System

Social Statues/Roles

Individual Cells

Tissues (clusters of

specialized cells)

Groups

Institutions

Organs

Society

Body

slide116

Social Institutions

Family

Polity

Education

Economy

Religion

Science

Father

Mother

Son

Daughter

Brother

Sister

Aunt

Uncle

Cousin

Grandmother

Priest

Minister

Rabbi

Deacon

Congregant

Researcher

Lab tech

President

Senator

Congressman

Governor

Mayor

Assemblyman

Judge

Lawyer

Teacher

Student

Dean

Principal

Superintendent

“X” Occupation

Consumer

entrepreneur

slide117

Structural-Functional Analysis

What are the different structural - socially patterned -

types of families that are found in the world? How

are the experiences of family members affected by

the type of family?

Nuclear

Endogamous

Patrilineal

Extended

Exogamous

Matrilineal

Blended

Single-parent

Same Sex

Monogamous

Widowed

Divorced

Never Married

Polygynous

Polyandrous

slide118

Social Functions

FAMILY

Socialization; regulation

of sexual activity

RELIGION

Social cohesion;

Social control

POLITY

Setting goals & laws

Social control;

Defense

EDUCATION

Transmitting requisite

skills & knowledge;

Socialization;

ECONOMY

Production & distribution

of goods & services

SCIENCE

Technology; medicine

slide119

Early Structural - Functional Analysis

Major emphasis on “functions” - those consequences that

contribute to the stability of the social system.

  • Analogy with biological system:
  • bacteria and viruses - which are “outside” of the
  • body - “attack” and threaten the health of the body
  • conflict and social disruptions are like diseases that
      • threaten the health of society
slide120

Politics

The Social System

Economy

Science

Family

Education

Institutional

Autonomy &

Interdependence

Religion

slide121

Social Institutions

Family

Polity

Economy

Education

Religion

Science

Beliefs

Values

Attitudes

Norms

Customs

Traditions

slide124

Billy Graham, 1951

“The Christian people of America will not sit idly by . . . .

They are going to vote as a bloc for the man with the

strongest moral and spiritual platform, regardless of his

views on other matters. I believe we can hold the balance

of power.”

slide126

Jerry Falwell

The Moral Majority

1979

slide128

Founded in 1988 by Pat Robertson and led--until recently--by

Ralph Reed, the Christian Coalition claims to have one to seven

million members and an annual budget of over $20 million.

The CC emphasizes grassroots organizations and direct action.

slide129

Focus on the family was foundered and is

Headed by Dr. James Dobson. His thirty-

Minute flagship radio program is broadcast

At least 18,000 times a week over 4,000

Stations. His audience is estimated at five

Million and his books sell in the millions.

slide130

Phyllis Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum

in 1975, a woman’s organization whose

primary purpose was to fight passage

of the Equal Rights Amendment.

slide131

Beverly LaHaye’s Concerned Women For America has

600,000 members and more than 800 chapters. It is the largest

woman’s organization in the country--more than twice as

large as NOW.

According to its web site, “CWA is built on prayer and action . . .

helping our members across the country bring Biblical

principles into all levels of public policy.”

slide132

Founded by Bill McCartney, Promise

Keepers stresses family responsibility

with emphasis on male leadership.

It has drawn upwards of 50,000 men

for two-day meetings around the

country.

slide133

Major emphasis on sex and

violence in the mass media

Rev. Don Wildmon

slide134

Led by Robert Simonds, Citizens for Excellence

in Education helped place more than 25,000

Christians on local school boards in the 1980's

and 1990's in order to facilitate the teaching

of Christian values. Now, however, arguing

that the school system will not bend, Simonds

states that Christians must exit the public

schools as soon as is possible and feasible and

has launched “RESCUE 2010.”

slide135

Systemic Interdependence

Church

&

State

Sex

Education

slide137

Systemic Interdependence

Church

&

State

Textbook

Controversies

Sex

Education

slide138

Mel & Norma Gabler

Educational Research Analysis

http://members.aol.com/TxtbkRevws/

slide139

Texas State Board of Education

Objected to what she called "asexual stealth

phrases" such as "individuals who marry."

"Opinions vary on why homosexuals,

lesbians and bisexuals as a group are

more prone to self-destructive behaviors

like depression, illegal drug use, and suicide."

Terri Leo,

Spring, Texas

slide140

Texas State Board of Education

"We were not trying to put creationism in.

We were asking merely that the law be

followed. There are no transitional species

ever found in the fossil record.

Terri Leo

State Board of Education

District 6

slide141

“Our school systems teach the children that

they are nothing but glorified apes who have

evolutionized out of some primordial soup of

mud.”

House Republican Majority Whip Tom DeLay,

explaining the school massacre in Littleton,

Colorado.

slide142

Systemic Interdependence

Church

&

State

Textbook

Controversies

Sex

Education

Evolution

&

Special Design

slide147

New laws that in some way challenge the teaching of evolution

are pending or have been considered in 20 states.

slide148

Status-sets & Institutional Interdependence

Familial

Economic

Religious

Political

Educational

Science

The Protestant Ethic and

The Spirit of Capitalism

The Puritan Spur

to Science

slide149

Systemic Interdependence

Gay

Marriage

Church

&

State

Prot Ethic

Capitalism

Textbook

Controversies

Stem cell

Cloning

Sex

Education

Evolution

&

Special Design

slide151

Unintended Consequences

Adam Smith

Thomas Malthus

Karl Marx

It’s not mere happenstance - there are specifiable and

predictable reasons why these occur.

We don’t know precisely what and when - just why.

Most of the consequences of purposive social action

are unintended.

slide152

Structural-Functional Analysis

All social actions and behaviors have multiple consequences,

some of which are intended (manifest), the vast majority of

which are unintended and unanticipated (latent).

Consequences that contribute to thestability of a social system

are called functions.

Consequences that disruptthe social system are called

dysfunctions.

slide153

Manifest

Latent

Functions

Dysfunctions