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Pre-Industrial Life. Industry and Livelihoods before the Industrial Revolution. Living from the Land. Life before the Industrial Revolution Not based on machinery No mass production. A Harsh Way of Life. Time – measured by religious events and seasons Change – rare

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pre industrial life

Pre-Industrial Life

Industry and Livelihoods before the Industrial Revolution

living from the land
Living from the Land
  • Life before the Industrial Revolution
    • Not based on

machinery

    • No mass

production

a harsh way of life
A Harsh Way of Life
  • Time – measured by religious events and seasons
  • Change – rare
  • Income – from farming
  • Disease – common
  • Family size – small
    • High infant mortality (death) rate
    • 1 in 3 dies within first year of life
    • 1 in 2 reach age 21
    • Average life expectance = 40
  • Location – most in country villages
    • Most never travel outside of village
village life
Village Life
  • Most are farmers
    • Rent/own small strips of land in several areas of the village
    • Cooperative farming
village life1
Village Life
  • Public land – “village commons”
    • Woodlands
    • Pastures
    • Less-fertile soil
  • No fencing between public and private
village life2
Village Life
  • Economics – local
    • Not good transportation
    • Muddy roads
  • Self-sufficient towns
  • Grow enough for family + small amount to sell
  • Make own:
    • Homes
    • Clothes
    • Tools
village life3
Village Life
  • The Rich
    • Country Estates – main house, cottages, barns, many fields
  • Luxurious living
  • Many servants
village life4
Village Life
  • The Poor
    • Rend land from landowners
    • Cottages: small, smoky, poorly lit, dirt floors
    • Sometimes shared shelter with animals
village life5
Village Life
  • Farming
    • Traditional
    • Same methods/tools as ancestors
    • Rely on weather for good seasons
      • Unpredictable
    • Involves every family member
early industry
Early Industry
  • Small-scale industry
  • Coal mines
  • Focus on providing necessities
    • Coal
    • Iron
    • Glass
    • Clothes
  • Most workers were also farm workers
    • Help with harvest
    • Farmers help in workshops during winter
early industry1
Early Industry
  • Wool
    • Second to farming
    • Needs network
    • Buy raw fiber
    • Clean, sort and spin fiber into thread/yarn
    • Yarn to weaver
    • Material to fuller – shape/clean material
    • Dyer - coloring
early industry2
Early Industry
  • Domestic System
    • Every person focuses on one step of a process
      • Like weaving/wool
    • AKA – “Cottage System” or “Cottage Industry”
  • Workers are highly specialized
  • Different stages of a process are handled by different people in different cottages
early industry3
Early Industry
  • Coal
    • Located under farms
    • Mine workers worked on farms during harvest
    • Farm horses pull coal wagons from coal pits
  • Other
    • Buy what you can’t make
      • Guns, furniture, clothing
      • Imported goods
    • Barter system
      • Trade what you have for what you need