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  1. Proposal • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Objectives • Background • Methodologies • Schedule • References

  2. Bits and pieces of executing a project • Progress of your Final year project • You have a title ? • You have a list of objectives? • What’s next? • Is it a hardware project? • Is it a software project? • Is it a combination of hardware and software with a microcontroller?

  3. Software project • What kind of software (simulation)? • Derive a new algorithm to solve a problem in power system? • Develop a software package? • Do you need GUI? • What programming language should you use? • C++, Java, C#, MatLab, LabView?

  4. What programming language to use? • Defined by the project? • There is an existing program developed by other students and your job is to further develop or enhance • Defined by the supervisor • Your supervisor knows Fortran (CT Tse) so you must write the program in Fortran! • Anything as long as it can get the job done!

  5. Which programming language • C++ is an obvious choice as you know it well!!!! • C++ can solve most of the engineering problems as well as developing basic GUI • There are many existing third-party library functions available in the Web! • Don’t forget the OOP nature of C++ as most third-party algorithms are available in “classes”

  6. Which programming language • MatLab? • Good for solving engineering problems • With many tool boxes for different algorithms • Image processing tool box • Fuzzy logic, • Simulink for control • MatLab can also work with external function written in C

  7. MatLab • MatLab can also develop into a GUI • • Similar to C++, there are also many third-party MatLab program (.m file) available on the Web • MatLab program can also convert into a C/C++ program

  8. LabView • Do you know what is LabView? • LabView is a graphical programming environment developed in NI (National Instruments) • LabView can be used as a stand alone programming tool • Example • Investigation of repeatable signal signature in rail condition monitoring with FBG sensors • Vehicle Number Plate Recognition by Image Processing Techniques • Turbine Response to a Change in Wind Speed and Pitch Control System (PT 2011 A grade)

  9. LabView

  10. Hardware • Hardware relatively is difficult to generalize • Certainly design buck-boost converter is very different from designing a Axial-flux-modulated motor • Requirements are so different! • What should you build or what should you buy?

  11. Motors • There are different kinds of motors • DC motor (current) • Servo motor (pulse width) • Stepper motor (digital) • Linear motor

  12. Power • DC power • Battery? • Current • Weight • Size

  13. Hardware • There are so many off-the-shelf components available so is it necessary to re-invent the wheel? • For example, if you need a buck-boost converter then there are many IC available for the job; same for motor drivers • Need a H-bridge (buy or build?) • Talk to your supervisor before building or buying any expensive components • Make sure that you understand the key objectives of your project

  14. Where to buy your hardware • In Hong Kong, • Welfare (Sham Shui Po) • IC master (San Po Kong) • RS • Farnell • DigiKey • In • In taobao

  15. Hardware + software Microprocessor related • Which processor? • There are so many processors available with many features such as • PWM • ADC, DAC • I2C

  16. Microprocessor • Arduino is getting very common in FYP • • Come with a IDE for software development (free of charge!!) • You can program using C (most microcontroller can be programmed using C language!!)

  17. Arduino • It is cheap (below $250) and comes with many support modules including • IR sensor • Motor driver • RF module •

  18. Other processors • ADuC832 also available • • Basic Stamp – used to be popular with FYP • Also comes with many supporting components but rather expensive • Available from • Very good software support

  19. Other options • Cheap andriod tablet • Andriod device + ADK then you can control an external device • Similar to Iphone using Bluetooth and WiFi (but you need to pay for the development kit)

  20. Keil compiler • If you are developing your own microprocessor system then how to compile/assemble your program? • Keil is a generic compiler that can support many types of microprocessors • Programs can be written in C, assembly etc •

  21. Mechanical issues • Mechanical design is more difficult than electrical for EE students • Industrial Centre (IC) can help • You can pay for services in IC • You can get some free components • You can get better support from IC if you can highlight the significant of your project

  22. Current • If you have many motors, sensors then pay attention to current • Use lithium battery • Common ground is necessary when connecting different components together

  23. What’s next? • You have a title? • You have some objectives? • Next step ?

  24. Do you know what’re these • CSLP • Prefecture

  25. Do you know what’re these • CSLP • Community service learning program • Prefecture • 縣 Fukushima prefecture 福島縣

  26. What’s next • Curiosity 好奇心;求知慾 • This is very important in doing a project • You need to demonstrate your willingness to take the “extra step”

  27. Research Methodologies • Simplified Research Process A grade (innovation)

  28. Literature review • Literature review is a written well organized summary of the state of the art (= current technology) with a clearly defined focus • can be the second chapter in your FYP final report and in your proposal the materials become the background (brief review needed in every original scientific paper in the introduction) • a review may include historical notes • papers simply collected in your files are not a review!

  29. Why Literature review? • •Motivation for literature searches: • •full understanding of subject (ie your objectives) • •show originality of own work (compare explicitly your • work with the earlier work) • •list of references for your own proposal or report • •ideas for new research (what to do in case your supervisor does not give you clear instructions!)

  30. Literature review • Every day more than 1000 papers are published in electrical engineering and electronics (INSPEC, IEEE Explorer), thus you must carefully select what you read • the amount of papers is doubled every 10-20 years • Certainly for FYP, reading books and web-sites may be more appropriate

  31. Sources of Technical Papers for Literature Review •Example databases for books •Google Book Search, •Amazon, •Example databases for papers •IEEE Xplore ( •INSPEC ( •Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIExpanded) •SCOPUS ( PolyU library

  32. Learning outcomes • Through doing a project • Learning something new!!! • Can learn a lot during literature review • Problem solving • communication

  33. Literature review : Bottom-up Learning Process

  34. Inductive learning • Learning by example • Induce a general rule from a set of observed instances (examples)

  35. Inductive reasoning • It gathers together particular observations in the form of premises (假定), then it reasons from these particular premises to a general conclusion • All the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow black stripes, therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow stripes. • Students from Mainland always seating in front so you guys are not from mainland

  36. Inductive reasoning • All EE students have a $3000 cell phone then all EE students are rich (correct?)

  37. Inductive learning • We use inductive reasoning all of the time. It is very useful. But we must recognize its limits. Most inductive reasoning is not based upon exhaustive evidence, and therefore the form is incomplete • Make sure you challenge your conclusions!!!

  38. Deductive Reasoning • It takes a general premise 假設 and deduces particularconclusions • All oranges are fruitsAll fruits grow on treesTherefore, all oranges grow on trees • All X are Y (premise)All Y are Z (premise)Hence, all X are Z (conclusion)

  39. Schedule • Deadline to submit your proposal (15-20 pages) is 2-April-2012 • Submit your proposal to your supervisor and Turnitin (doc format only) • The Turnitin version is for record of submission • Your supervisor must submit the grade of your proposal on 17-April

  40. Introduction Derive your own solution Output of your project Try to solve your problem

  41. Hypothesis • An hypothesis is a preliminary or tentative explanation by the researcher of what the researcher considers the outcome of an investigation will be • A problem is formulated in the form of a question; it serves as the basis or origin from which an hypothesis is derived • An hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem.

  42. What is Research All About: Problem and Hypothesis

  43. Scientific Method • scientific method is “a method of research, in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated [discovery], and the hypothesis is empirically tested [verification]” • two tools of control: observations and experiments (guarantees correspondence with reality) and mathematical analysis (may not be possible in all cases)

  44. Requirements for success • analytical, curious, need for autonomy and change, flexible, collaborative, tolerant of ambiguity, criticalness (avoid groupthink) • knowledge of literature, technical skills, communication skills (knowledge of languages, social skills), and creativity (original thinking)

  45. How does a researcher work? • make always notes in a notebook • make summaries on what has been learned • make plans for the future all the time (outlines, roadmaps, visions) • discuss, ask questions and argue (criticism)

  46. Critics & Comments Are Our Friends • The aim of criticism is to show weaknesses and finally improve the quality of the work in international competition • Without criticism we would always compete in the “province league”

  47. Critics & Comments Do not prevent criticism although you may become angry because criticism hurts when was the last time you’re being criticise? • Criticism must be objective, impersonal, and related • Ideally you should show what should be improved and how • Start and finish with encouragement

  48. Choosing a Problem • • right problem, right timing, right approach, difficulty of problem and its likely payoff • • more experience needed to solve problems • discussions (most new ideas are generated by talking with others) • experiments (start them early, use experimental-inductive approach) • literature (find out existing knowledge)