Problem Solving Within the MTSS Framework Melissa Long Janet Stephenson
Goals of Presentation • Understand the Problem Solving process within a multi-tiered system of support • Be able to use the Problem Solving process at all three tiers • Use the Problem Solving process when analyzing data
What is MTSS? One system supporting it all What Happened To RtI?
Big Picture + _______________________________________________________________________ =
MTSS: 3 Priorities 1. Prevention: Identify students at-risk for literacy failure BEFORE they actually fail. • Screening, intervention and progress monitoring is key. • Identify ALL at-risk students by November. • This strategy prevents the GAP. • Managing GAPs is more expensive and less likely to be successful.
MTSS: 3 Priorities 2. Early Intervention • Purpose here is the manage the GAP. • Students who are more that 2 years behind have a 10% chance, or less, or catching up. • Benchmark, progress monitoring data, district-wide assessments are used to identify students that have a gap of 2 years or less. • Students bumping up against the 2 year level receive the most intensive services. • This more costly and requires more specialized instruction/personnel
MTSS: 3 Priorities 3. Intensive Intervention • Reserved for those students who have a GAP of more than 2 years and the rate of growth to close the GAP is unrealistic. Too much growth—too little time remaining. • Problem-solving is used to develop instructional priorities. • This is truly a case of “you cannot do something different the same way.” • This is the most costly, staff intensive and least likely to result in goal attainment
Tiered System of Intervention Data Monitoring and Analysis Systematic Problem Solving 3 Cornerstones of MTSS
Turn and Talk - Summarize • Partner A says the 4 priorities • Partner B says the 3 cornerstones • Partner A and B share which of the conerstones their school is implementing the best.
MTSS: Key Concepts • Academic Engaged Time (AET) is the best predictor of student achievement • 330 minutes in a day, 1650 in a week and 56,700 in a year • This is the “currency” of instruction/intervention • Its what we have to spend on students • How we use it determines student outcomes. • MOST students who are behind will respond positively to additional CORE instruction. • Schools have more staff qualified to deliver core instruction than specialized instruction. • Issue is how to schedule in such a way as to provide more exposure to core.
MTSS: Key Concepts • Managing the GAP between student current level of performance and expectation (benchmark, standards, goal) is what RtI/MTSS is all about. • The two critical pieces of information we need about students are: • How BIG is the GAP? • AND • How much time do we have to close it? • The answers to these 2 questions defines our instructional mission.
What is Problem Solving? Define the Problem What Do We Want Students to KNOW and Be Able to DO? Evaluate Did It WORK? (Response to Intervention –RtI) Problem Analysis Why Can’t They DO It? Implement Plan What Are WE Going To DO About It?
DATA The Problem Solving approach is supported by student progress monitoring data that supports data-based decision making throughout the tiers in the RtI process.
How do we Identify the Problem? • By looking at the data of… • Screening Assessments • Diagnostic Assessments • Progress Monitoring Assessments • Summative Assessments • Formative Assessments
PS/RtI Model • Interventions are generated directly from assessment data which is collected in a direct and objective fashion. • Help distinguish between student learning/behavior problems and core instructional problems • Utilizes a multi-tiered model of service delivery to ensure efficient allocation of these limited resources. • Intensity of instruction and intervention is in direct proportion to student level of need.
Where is the problem? Is this an individual student problem, or a larger, systemic problem?
Traditional Instruction vs. Standards-Based Instruction Standards-Based Classroom Traditional Classroom instruction instruction • Whole class instruction dominates • Student differences are acted upon when problematic • Mastery of facts is focus of learning • Coverage of texts and curriculum drives instruction • Lesson topic is selected from curriculum and/or text • Single option assignments are the norm • Assessment is most common at the end of learning to see “who got it” • A single form of assessment is often used • Teachers administers tests then moves on to curriculum • Many instructional strategies are used • Students differences are studied as a basis for planning • Use of essential skills to make sense of and understand key concepts & big ideas are the focus of learning • Student readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instruction • Lesson topic is selected based on state standards • Multi-option assignments are frequently used • Assessment is ongoing to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner • Students are assessed in multiple ways • Teachers assess and reteach based on student mastery level ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT
What is the Focus of Tier 1 ? Academic • High quality instruction and classroom management • Universal Screening to determine each student’s level of proficiency • Differentiated instruction is used and student’s progress monitored • Differentiation occurs in small, teacher-led flexible groups during the 90 min block
What is the Focus of Tier 1?Behavior • High quality classroom management • Effective school-wide discipline plan and/or positive behavior support • Questions to ask? • Do 80-90% of students in the school respond positively to the school-wide discipline plan? • Does the behavior level of the target student differ significantly from that of the peer group?
Looking at Tier 1 Data - Grade 3 Math InventoryDefine the Problem What are some areas of concern? 2. How would your instructional action plan be impacted by this assessment? What skills would an instructor address in the Universal, Core Instruction(Tier 1) ? 4. How would an instructor group students using this data?
Teacher Data Team Discussion Questions for Tier 1 Data • Are 75-80% of the students meeting proficiency based on the screening data or the common assessment data? • Is the core curriculum meeting the needs of most (75-80%) of my class? The grade level? • Are the core instructional methods meeting the needs of most (75-80%) of the class? The grade level? • Is the classroom environment effective so that 75-80% of students respond to the classroom rules, procedures, and routines? • If not, what can we do about these?
There is no amount of intervention that can substitute quality instruction.
Turn and Talk - Summarize • What are some ways you monitor and problem solve Tier 1 at your school?
Tier 3 is “MOST” • (Most) Time (Core Program + to Greatest Degree Possible) • (Most) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction • (Most) Scaffolded Instruction • (Most) Opportunities to Respond with Corrective Feedback • (Most) Language Support, Especially Vocabulary • (Most) Intensive Motivational Strategies • (Most) Frequent Progress Monitoring
Tier 2 is “MORE” • (More) Time (Core Program +) • (More) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction • (More) Scaffolded Instruction • (More) Opportunities to Respond with Corrective Feedback • (More) Language Support, Especially Vocabulary • (More) Intensive Motivational Strategies • (More) Frequent Progress Monitoring
Staff Skills • Problem Solving Process (e.g., problem identification and validation • Knowledge of Curriculum • Intervention (Design, implementation, integrity) • Progress monitoring, graphing • Data analysis, decision points
Components of Problem Analysis • Clear understanding of the cause/functions of the problem • Determine if the problem is a skill or performance deficit • Develop hypothesis as to why the problem is occurring • Determine if the problem is Instructional (I), Curricular (C), Environmental (E), or Learner (L) related • Identify relevant obstacles • Develop observable and measurable goals to address the problem
Teacher Data Team Discussion Questionsto Guide Tier 2 Data Discussions • Are about 70% of the students in the intervention making progress based on the ongoing progress monitoring data points? • Is the intervention curriculum addressing the needs of most (70%) of the intervention group class? • Are the intervention instructional methods meeting the needs of most (70%) of the students in the intervention group? • If not, what can we do about this? Curriculum? Instruction? Environment? • Do we need more diagnostic information? • Do we need to look at different supplemental material to meet the needs of our students in the core program?
How Data is Used for Selecting Interventions • Look at students with similar data profiles, indicating very specific instructional needs: • Link those data with that group of students – both differentiating that within the general classroom and providing supplemental or “tier time.” • Tier time: extra time during the school day when students who are behind can actually get intensive interventions to accelerate learning so they can catch up.
Screening and Progress Monitoring -Not Always Enough • Screening assessments sometimes do not go far enough in answering the question: • We will need to “DIG DEEPER!” • Quick phonics screener, Error Analysis, Curriculum-based evaluation procedures, etc. Digging Deeper!
Digging Deeper • How deep you dig depends on the intensity of the problem. OR
Diagnostic Assessments • PSI • PASI • Running Records • DAR • Math Fluency checks
Match the Intervention to the Skill Deficit/Student Need • What is the root cause of the problem? • Lack of Phonological Awareness • Phonics/Decoding/Text Processing • Fluency • Comprehension • Performance deficit or skill deficit? • Without a match, student will be practicing skills that are good, but not directly related to what they need to make progress
Data Documentation: Tier 2 • Baseline data; determination of baseline data. • Aim Line or Goal • Intervention selected – IPST Form 7 • Progress monitoring data • Comparison with national norms • Interventions/Fidelity • Observations
Activity: Generate your own ICEL ChartInstructionCurriculumEnvironmentLearner**Review Pink ICEL pages****Review IPST FORM 6**
B.E.S.T. Instruction Students placed with appropriate level of resources/materials Clarity of instructions Systematic and explicit instruction Frequency of interaction/reinforcement Clear academic and behavioral expectations Sequencing of lessons designs to promote success Variety of practice activities (behavioral and academic)
Curriculum Curriculum map – long term goals Instructional materials Sequence of the content/instruction Pacing Formative assessments drive teach/reteach
Environment peer interaction, expectations, reinforcement, support physical arrangement of the room furniture/equipment clear classroom expectations management plans schedule task pressure home/family supports
Learner Skills Motivation Health Prior knowledge
Why is the Problem Occurring? • Form 6A
MTSS Decision Matrix Tier 1 = Assessments that all students get including, but not limited to FAIR, DRLA, Math Core Assessments. Tier 2 =Assessments that groups of students get including, but not limited to PASI, PSI, ORF, OPM on FAIR etc. ↑= indicates an increase in performance data ↓= indicates a decrease in performance data