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Science Module 8th Grade
TAKS Objective 3 • The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter.
TEKS Science Concepts 8.9 • The student knows that substances have chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to: • (B) interpret information on the periodic table to understand that physical properties are used to group elements.
Learning Objectives • 1. The student will be able to demonstrate how the periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic number. • 2. The student will be able to explain how the periodic table is arranged with respect to groups and periods. • 3. The student will be able to identify the major sections of the periodic table. • 4. The student will be able to identify major groups within the periodic table and their shared properties. • 5. The student will be able to construct a box on the periodic table and explain each piece of information given in the box.
True or False Groupings are clear cut
There are clear patterns within groups, but no distinct divisions. Groups must be looked at as a whole.
True or False All elements in a group have the same properties
GROUP 1 All the Group 1 elements are silvery-colored metals. They are soft, and can be easily cut with a knife to expose a shiny surface which dulls on oxidation. They are extremely reactive.
GROUP 2 The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white color. These elements are all found in the Earth’s crust, but not in the elemental form as they are so reactive. Instead, they are widely distributed in rock structures. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and calcium is the fifth
GROUP 3-12 • TRANSITION METALS – These metals have a moderate range of reactivity and a wide range of properties. In general, they are shiny and good conductors of heat and electricity. They also have higher densities and melting points than groups 1 & 2.
Lanthanides and Actinides • These are also transition metals that were taken out and placed at the bottom of the table so the table wouldn’t be so wide. The elements in each of these two periods share many properties. The lanthanides are shiny and reactive. The actinides are all radioactive and are therefore unstable. Elements 95 through 103 do not exist in nature but have been manufactured in the lab.
Group 13 BORON GROUP – Contains one metalloid and 4 metals. Reactive. Aluminum is in this group. Aluminum is also the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust.
Group 14 • CARBON GROUP – Contains one nonmetal, two metalloids, and two metals. Varied reactivity.
Group 15 NITROGEN GROUP – Contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and one metal. Varied reactivity.
Group 16 OXYGEN GROUP – Contains three nonmetals, one metalloid, and one metal. Reactive group.
Group 17 HALOGENS – All nonmetals. Very reactive. Poor conductors of heat and electricity. Tend to form salts with metals. Ex. NaCl: sodium chloride also known as “table salt”).
Group 18 Noble Gases – Unreactive nonmetals. All are colorless, odorless gases at room temperature. All found in earth’s atmosphere in small amounts.
ENGAGE • Show the following flash animation, while playing Tom Lehrer’s element song. www.privatehead.com/flash/elements.html • View the following website, which provides information about the periodic table, including alternate styles of the periodic table. http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/periodic.html • The attached script – “The Perils of Discovery”- can be used as a comical explanation of elemental discovery.
EXPLORE • Element Name Game • In this activity, students will use The Elements worksheets, to answer the questions on Name That Element.
EXPLAIN • Color Coding the Periodic Table • Students will read the information on the Student Information Sheet in order to become familiar with the organization of the Periodic Table. Students will then use the Student Worksheet to color code their own copy of the Periodic Table.
ELABORATE • All in the Family • In this activity, students will work in groups to research certain groups of elements on the Periodic Table. • Students will use the Internet to research the element groups and record their findings on colored index cards. • As a class, students will then assemble a Periodic Table using their cards.
All in the Family THE ELEMENT (front of card)
All in the Family Kingsize Periodic Table
ELABORATE • Powers of Ten http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceoptiscu/powersof10 • To answer the question, “How is the Periodic Table arranged?” the following website can be used to show the different configurations of the Periodic Table. • Alternate Styles for the Periodic Table • This can lead to a discussion as to why the Modern Periodic Table is the most widely accepted.
ELABORATE • Periodic Table Computer Lab http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/secs/html/matter_and_chemical_change/ChemistryPuzzle/index.html
EVALUATE • Family Ties • After students have completed the elaboration activities, give students a copy of the Family Ties worksheet to complete.