module 4 science technology and education l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education Science and technology education from diverse perspectives Science education controversies Information technology and education Women and science education Race and science education Science Education

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education' - jana

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
module 4 science technology and education
Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education

Science and technology education from diverse perspectives

  • Science education controversies
  • Information technology and education
  • Women and science education
  • Race and science education
science education
Science Education
  • For nations, science is widely seen as a source of economic development.
  • For individuals, science provides access to economic and social advancement.
  • Education controls access to these opportunites, so science education programs are an important context where science deeply affects society.
today science education controversies advanced secondary study
Today: Science Education Controversies Advanced Secondary Study
  • The National Academy as a source of advice on policy questions involving science.
  • Programs for advanced study of science in secondary schools as a window on science education more broadly.
  • Cognitive research as a methodology for evaluating educational programs.
  • Education at different levels: the secondary-college interface.
the national academy of sciences
The National Academy of Sciences
  • Created by Congress to advise the nation.
  • Consists of about 1000 scientists elected on the basis of research achievement.
  • It’s research arm, the National Research Council, conducts studies upon request by any agency of the government.
  • Those conducting a study (not necessarily members) are selected for their relevant expertise, and the selection is subject to public comment.
  • Several hundred investigations are conducted annually; extremely diverse (see partial current list).
  • Study committees work by consensus (usually).
  • Investigations must meet rigorous standards of peer review.
improving advanced study of mathematics and science in u s high schools
Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools
  • 2-year study by the National Research Council, Center for Education.
  • Stimulated initially by TIMSS international comparisons.
  • Focused on AP and IB programs in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Math.
  • Considers programs in light of research on learning and cognition.
  • Committee: scientist-researchers, teachers, educators with experience in teacher education and access/equity, cognitive scientists.
  • Supported by NSF, Dept. of Education.
committee members
Committee Members
  • Jerry Gollub, Physics, Haverford/Penn (Co-Chair)
  • Philip Curtis, Math, UCLA (Co-Chair)
  • Camilla Benbow, Education, Vanderbilt
  • Hilda Borko, Education, UC Boulder
  • Wanda Bussy, IB Math Teacher
  • Glenn Crosby, Chemistry, Washington State
  • John Dossey, Mathematics, Illinois State
  • David Ely, AP Biology Teacher
  • J.K. Haynes, Biology, Morehouse
  • Deborah Hughes Hallett, Mathematics, U. Arizona
  • Valerie Lee, Education, Michigan
committee cont and staff
Committee (cont.) and Staff
  • Stephanie Pace Marshall, President Illinois Math and Science Academy
  • Michael Martinez, Education, U.C. Irvine
  • Patsy Mueller, AP Chemistry Teacher
  • Joseph Novak, education, Cornell and U.W. FL
  • Jeannie Oakes, GSE, UCLA
  • Robin Spital, AP Physics Teacher
  • Conrad Stanitski, Chemistry, U. Central AK
  • William Wood,Biology, U. Colorado Boulder

NRC STAFF: Jay Labov (Director); Meryl Bertenthal (Sr. Program Officer);

  • 22 Members of Content Panels in physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics
  • Directors and 20 staff of the AP and IB programs
  • Experts on learning and cognition
  • Experts on the TIMMS Study
  • Many consultants: minority students; students with special needs
  • Survey of college admissions officers
  • NRC suppport staff and consultants
  • > $1 Million from NSF and the U.S. Dept. of Education
the ap program
The AP Program
  • Developed by the College Board.
  • 11 courses in 8 science/math subjects.
  • Course outlines based on college surveys.
  • Elective, end-of-course exams, 760,000 per year; 1-5 scale; 34% do not take the exams.
  • Limited specific advice to teachers. Actual courses vary widely.
  • Teacher preparation is quite diverse.
international baccalaureate program
International Baccalaureate Program
  • Started as an international standard for families stationed outside home countries.
  • 272 U.S. schools, 51,000 examinations
  • Most students are diploma candidates; integrated program of 6-7 courses over 2 years.
  • In-course and final examinations to measure knowledge, understanding, and cognitive skill.
  • Internal assessments: laboratory investigations; portfolios in mathematics
  • Not designed for college credit, but credit is sometimes given.
  • Monitored by IBO.
context of advanced study
Context of Advanced Study
  • Angst about performance of schools
  • Uneven resources: money; teachers; programs
  • Disparities in participation
  • Poor coordination between levels: middle school, high school, and college
  • Advanced study as currency for admission to college
  • Mis-use of advanced study programs
  • Differentiated vs. constrained curriculum (tracking)
  • Inadequate support and development opportunities for teachers.
minority participation and success in ap

African American











Minority Participation and Success in AP
  • Number of AP courses offered in schools declines as African-American and Hispanic population increases. (CA)
  • These groups under-participate by factor of 3-4 nationally.

Mean AP Scores

AP Bio Chem PhysB PhC-M PhC-EM CalcAB Calc BC


misuses of ap and ib exams in ranking schools and evaluating teachers
Misuses of AP and IB Exams in Ranking Schools and Evaluating Teachers
  • Counter to AERA Standards for Testing because uncontrolled for prior knowledge.
  • May cause teachers to discourage students from taking courses or exams.
  • Motivates teachers to teach to tests that are flawed.
  • Prevents schools from offering other rigorous options.
  • Emphasizing enrollment numbers can lead to inadequate preparation of students.
the recommendations 1 primary goal of advanced study
The Recommendations:1. Primary Goal of Advanced Study
  • The primary goal - for students to achieve deep conceptual understanding of the content and unifying concepts of a discipline.
  • To develop skills of inquiry, analysis, and problem solving so that they become superior learners.
  • Acceleration and the aim of obtaining college credit compete with depth of understanding.
2 access and equity
2. Access and Equity
  • Schools need a coherent plan extending from middle school through the last years of secondary school. Treat all students as potential future participants (in advanced courses) while in grades 6-10.
  • Course options with reduced academic content leave students unprepared for further study and should be eliminated. *
  • Improving access requires many parties to work together:
    • Invest in facilities and materials; train teachers; provide support systems for students.
3 learning principles
3. Learning Principles
  • Programs of advanced study in science and mathematics must be made consistent with findings from recent research on how people learn.
    • Importance of principled conceptual knowledge;
    • The learner’s prior knowledge is used to create new understanding;
    • Motivation and confidence affect learning;
    • Self-monitoring of learning improves proficiency;
    • Context of learning (practices and activities) shapes what is learned.
  • Current programs not designed with these principles in mind, but can benefit from this body of research.

example of analysis of programs based on learning principles
Example of Analysis of Programs based on Learning Principles
  • Role of Prior Knowledge:
    • Prerequisites: Neither the CB nor IBO specify the competencies students need prior to advanced study.
    • Inadequate preparation of students starting in middle school.
    • Inadequate attention to sequencing topics within courses for gradually increasing complexity.
    • Inadequate attention to diagnosing and correcting common misconceptions.
example of analysis of programs based on learning principles21
Example of Analysis of Programs based on Learning Principles
  • Situated Learning: What is learned depends on the context of the learning experience.
    • AP Program does not assess ability to apply learning to new situations.
    • AP and IB programs do not emphasize interdisciplinary connections.
    • Programs make inadequate use of hands-on or inquiry-based laboratory experiences.
a framework for evaluating programs
A Framework for Evaluating Programs
  • Systematic program design based on learning principles is required for success:
    • Effective curricula in math and science are coherent, focused on important ideas, and sequenced to optimize learning.
    • Instruction begins with careful consideration of students thinking.
    • Assessment includes both process and content, aligned with instruction and desired outcomes.
    • Development opportunities for teachers are essential.
4 curriculum
4. Curriculum
  • Curricula for advanced study should focus on a reasonable number of central organizing concepts and principles and their empirical basis.
  • Integration with earlier courses. Multiple year programs may help.
  • Requires collaborative team effort: teachers, scientists, experts in pedagogy. Repeated cycles of design and revision.
5 instruction
5. Instruction
  • Engage students in inquiry via opportunities to experiment, analyze, make conjectures argue, and solve problems.
  • Instruction: recognize differences among learners; employ multiple representations of ideas; pose a variety of tasks.
  • Program developers should suggest appropriate strategies to teachers. Current materials provide little assistance.
6 assessment during and after
6. Assessment: During and After
  • Assessment should include content and process.
  • Final assessments influence instruction, so they need to measure what is important.
  • Avoid predictable formulaic questions; test conceptual understanding and thinking.
  • Need for research about what the examinations measure.
  • Teachers need assistance with with in-course assessments for practice and feedback.
  • Reporting: A single numerical score is not sufficiently informative.
7 teachers and prof development
7. Teachers and Prof. Development
  • AP and IB should specify the qualifications expected of teachers.
  • Schools must provide frequent opportunities for continuing professional development.
  • AP and IB should provide models of PD that foster quality instruction.
  • PD should emphasize deep understanding of content and subject-specific methods of inquiry.
  • Teachers need professional communities.
  • University science and mathematics departments can help.
8 alternative programs
8. Alternative Programs
  • Approaches to advanced study other than AP and IB should be developed and evaluated.
  • Many alternatives exist: collaborative programs; college sponsored enrichment; specialized schools; distance learning; internships; competitions.
  • Alternatives may increase access to advanced study or lead to novel and effective strategies.
  • Special needs of very high-ability students (top few %).
  • Important role for funding agencies.
9 secondary college interface
9. Secondary-College Interface
  • Credit and placement decisions: base on multiple sources of information.
  • College admissionsdepartments: discourage taking advanced courses without doing well or taking the exams.
  • College and university scientists and mathematicians: focus our own courses on deep understanding, etc.
  • Departments: carefully advise undergraduates about benefits and costs of bypassing introductory courses.
10 changes in ap and ib
10. Changes in AP and IB
  • CB: AP courses should not be designed to replicate typical introductory college courses.
  • CB and IBO: revise assessments to measure conceptual understanding and complex reasoning.
  • Both: provide guidance and assistance to schools and teachers on instructional practices and teacher qualifications. Lists of topics aren’t enough.
  • CB: Exercise more quality control over courses.
  • Both: discourage misuses of exam scores.
the full report http www nap edu catalog 10129 html
The Full Report:
  • Explains how programs fit within the context of high schools; relationship to middle school and higher education.
  • Describes AP, IB, and alternatives in depth.
  • Reviews research on learning and its application to improving curriculum, instruction, assessment, and teacher prof. development.
  • Analyzes AP and IB programs for consistency with this research.
  • Describes misuses of these programs.
  • Presents recommendations for change.
  • Includes panel reports on Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics (web only).
content panel reports common elements
Content Panel Reports: Common Elements
  • Inadequate utilization of learning research. Programs not consistent with national standards; excessive content encourages memorization rather than conceptual learning. Insufficient interdisciplinary connections in AP.
  • Exams do not test conceptual understanding adequately.
  • Biology and chemistry courses are out of date.
  • Clear expectations for teacher and student preparation are needed.
  • Insufficient cooperation between schools and universities.
research needs
Research Needs
  • Research on effectiveness is needed. Data appears to show that AP students exempted from college courses do well, but is flawed.
  • How are these courses actually implemented?
  • What instructional practices are effective in advanced study?
  • What do the tests actually measure (what cognitive processes are elicited)?
  • How are the colleges and universities affected?
what will make all this happen
What will make all this happen?
  • Many different organizations and individuals need to cooperate to change this complex system:
    • Curriculum developers
    • School districts
    • Government
    • Colleges and universities