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Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education Science and technology education from diverse perspectives Science education controversies Information technology and education Women and science education Race and science education Science Education

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module 4 science technology and education
Module 4: Science, Technology, and Education

Science and technology education from diverse perspectives

  • Science education controversies
  • Information technology and education
  • Women and science education
  • Race and science education
science education
Science Education
  • For nations, science is widely seen as a source of economic development.
  • For individuals, science provides access to economic and social advancement.
  • Education controls access to these opportunites, so science education programs are an important context where science deeply affects society.
today science education controversies advanced secondary study
Today: Science Education Controversies Advanced Secondary Study
  • The National Academy as a source of advice on policy questions involving science.
  • Programs for advanced study of science in secondary schools as a window on science education more broadly.
  • Cognitive research as a methodology for evaluating educational programs.
  • Education at different levels: the secondary-college interface.
the national academy of sciences
The National Academy of Sciences
  • Created by Congress to advise the nation.
  • Consists of about 1000 scientists elected on the basis of research achievement.
  • It’s research arm, the National Research Council, conducts studies upon request by any agency of the government.
  • Those conducting a study (not necessarily members) are selected for their relevant expertise, and the selection is subject to public comment.
  • Several hundred investigations are conducted annually; extremely diverse (see partial current list).
  • Study committees work by consensus (usually).
  • Investigations must meet rigorous standards of peer review.
improving advanced study of mathematics and science in u s high schools
Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools
  • 2-year study by the National Research Council, Center for Education.
  • Stimulated initially by TIMSS international comparisons.
  • Focused on AP and IB programs in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Math.
  • Considers programs in light of research on learning and cognition.
  • Committee: scientist-researchers, teachers, educators with experience in teacher education and access/equity, cognitive scientists.
  • Supported by NSF, Dept. of Education.
committee members
Committee Members
  • Jerry Gollub, Physics, Haverford/Penn (Co-Chair)
  • Philip Curtis, Math, UCLA (Co-Chair)
  • Camilla Benbow, Education, Vanderbilt
  • Hilda Borko, Education, UC Boulder
  • Wanda Bussy, IB Math Teacher
  • Glenn Crosby, Chemistry, Washington State
  • John Dossey, Mathematics, Illinois State
  • David Ely, AP Biology Teacher
  • J.K. Haynes, Biology, Morehouse
  • Deborah Hughes Hallett, Mathematics, U. Arizona
  • Valerie Lee, Education, Michigan
committee cont and staff
Committee (cont.) and Staff
  • Stephanie Pace Marshall, President Illinois Math and Science Academy
  • Michael Martinez, Education, U.C. Irvine
  • Patsy Mueller, AP Chemistry Teacher
  • Joseph Novak, education, Cornell and U.W. FL
  • Jeannie Oakes, GSE, UCLA
  • Robin Spital, AP Physics Teacher
  • Conrad Stanitski, Chemistry, U. Central AK
  • William Wood,Biology, U. Colorado Boulder

NRC STAFF: Jay Labov (Director); Meryl Bertenthal (Sr. Program Officer);

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • 22 Members of Content Panels in physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics
  • Directors and 20 staff of the AP and IB programs
  • Experts on learning and cognition
  • Experts on the TIMMS Study
  • Many consultants: minority students; students with special needs
  • Survey of college admissions officers
  • NRC suppport staff and consultants
  • > $1 Million from NSF and the U.S. Dept. of Education
the ap program
The AP Program
  • Developed by the College Board.
  • 11 courses in 8 science/math subjects.
  • Course outlines based on college surveys.
  • Elective, end-of-course exams, 760,000 per year; 1-5 scale; 34% do not take the exams.
  • Limited specific advice to teachers. Actual courses vary widely.
  • Teacher preparation is quite diverse.
international baccalaureate program
International Baccalaureate Program
  • Started as an international standard for families stationed outside home countries.
  • 272 U.S. schools, 51,000 examinations
  • Most students are diploma candidates; integrated program of 6-7 courses over 2 years.
  • In-course and final examinations to measure knowledge, understanding, and cognitive skill.
  • Internal assessments: laboratory investigations; portfolios in mathematics
  • Not designed for college credit, but credit is sometimes given.
  • Monitored by IBO.
context of advanced study
Context of Advanced Study
  • Angst about performance of schools
  • Uneven resources: money; teachers; programs
  • Disparities in participation
  • Poor coordination between levels: middle school, high school, and college
  • Advanced study as currency for admission to college
  • Mis-use of advanced study programs
  • Differentiated vs. constrained curriculum (tracking)
  • Inadequate support and development opportunities for teachers.
minority participation and success in ap

African American

White

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Minority Participation and Success in AP
  • Number of AP courses offered in schools declines as African-American and Hispanic population increases. (CA)
  • These groups under-participate by factor of 3-4 nationally.

Mean AP Scores

AP Bio Chem PhysB PhC-M PhC-EM CalcAB Calc BC

Subject

misuses of ap and ib exams in ranking schools and evaluating teachers
Misuses of AP and IB Exams in Ranking Schools and Evaluating Teachers
  • Counter to AERA Standards for Testing because uncontrolled for prior knowledge.
  • May cause teachers to discourage students from taking courses or exams.
  • Motivates teachers to teach to tests that are flawed.
  • Prevents schools from offering other rigorous options.
  • Emphasizing enrollment numbers can lead to inadequate preparation of students.
the recommendations 1 primary goal of advanced study
The Recommendations:1. Primary Goal of Advanced Study
  • The primary goal - for students to achieve deep conceptual understanding of the content and unifying concepts of a discipline.
  • To develop skills of inquiry, analysis, and problem solving so that they become superior learners.
  • Acceleration and the aim of obtaining college credit compete with depth of understanding.
2 access and equity
2. Access and Equity
  • Schools need a coherent plan extending from middle school through the last years of secondary school. Treat all students as potential future participants (in advanced courses) while in grades 6-10.
  • Course options with reduced academic content leave students unprepared for further study and should be eliminated. *
  • Improving access requires many parties to work together:
    • Invest in facilities and materials; train teachers; provide support systems for students.
3 learning principles
3. Learning Principles
  • Programs of advanced study in science and mathematics must be made consistent with findings from recent research on how people learn.
    • Importance of principled conceptual knowledge;
    • The learner’s prior knowledge is used to create new understanding;
    • Motivation and confidence affect learning;
    • Self-monitoring of learning improves proficiency;
    • Context of learning (practices and activities) shapes what is learned.
  • Current programs not designed with these principles in mind, but can benefit from this body of research.
slide19

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9853.html

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10019.html

example of analysis of programs based on learning principles
Example of Analysis of Programs based on Learning Principles
  • Role of Prior Knowledge:
    • Prerequisites: Neither the CB nor IBO specify the competencies students need prior to advanced study.
    • Inadequate preparation of students starting in middle school.
    • Inadequate attention to sequencing topics within courses for gradually increasing complexity.
    • Inadequate attention to diagnosing and correcting common misconceptions.
example of analysis of programs based on learning principles21
Example of Analysis of Programs based on Learning Principles
  • Situated Learning: What is learned depends on the context of the learning experience.
    • AP Program does not assess ability to apply learning to new situations.
    • AP and IB programs do not emphasize interdisciplinary connections.
    • Programs make inadequate use of hands-on or inquiry-based laboratory experiences.
a framework for evaluating programs
A Framework for Evaluating Programs
  • Systematic program design based on learning principles is required for success:
    • Effective curricula in math and science are coherent, focused on important ideas, and sequenced to optimize learning.
    • Instruction begins with careful consideration of students thinking.
    • Assessment includes both process and content, aligned with instruction and desired outcomes.
    • Development opportunities for teachers are essential.
4 curriculum
4. Curriculum
  • Curricula for advanced study should focus on a reasonable number of central organizing concepts and principles and their empirical basis.
  • Integration with earlier courses. Multiple year programs may help.
  • Requires collaborative team effort: teachers, scientists, experts in pedagogy. Repeated cycles of design and revision.
5 instruction
5. Instruction
  • Engage students in inquiry via opportunities to experiment, analyze, make conjectures argue, and solve problems.
  • Instruction: recognize differences among learners; employ multiple representations of ideas; pose a variety of tasks.
  • Program developers should suggest appropriate strategies to teachers. Current materials provide little assistance.
6 assessment during and after
6. Assessment: During and After
  • Assessment should include content and process.
  • Final assessments influence instruction, so they need to measure what is important.
  • Avoid predictable formulaic questions; test conceptual understanding and thinking.
  • Need for research about what the examinations measure.
  • Teachers need assistance with with in-course assessments for practice and feedback.
  • Reporting: A single numerical score is not sufficiently informative.
7 teachers and prof development
7. Teachers and Prof. Development
  • AP and IB should specify the qualifications expected of teachers.
  • Schools must provide frequent opportunities for continuing professional development.
  • AP and IB should provide models of PD that foster quality instruction.
  • PD should emphasize deep understanding of content and subject-specific methods of inquiry.
  • Teachers need professional communities.
  • University science and mathematics departments can help.
8 alternative programs
8. Alternative Programs
  • Approaches to advanced study other than AP and IB should be developed and evaluated.
  • Many alternatives exist: collaborative programs; college sponsored enrichment; specialized schools; distance learning; internships; competitions.
  • Alternatives may increase access to advanced study or lead to novel and effective strategies.
  • Special needs of very high-ability students (top few %).
  • Important role for funding agencies.
9 secondary college interface
9. Secondary-College Interface
  • Credit and placement decisions: base on multiple sources of information.
  • College admissionsdepartments: discourage taking advanced courses without doing well or taking the exams.
  • College and university scientists and mathematicians: focus our own courses on deep understanding, etc.
  • Departments: carefully advise undergraduates about benefits and costs of bypassing introductory courses.
10 changes in ap and ib
10. Changes in AP and IB
  • CB: AP courses should not be designed to replicate typical introductory college courses.
  • CB and IBO: revise assessments to measure conceptual understanding and complex reasoning.
  • Both: provide guidance and assistance to schools and teachers on instructional practices and teacher qualifications. Lists of topics aren’t enough.
  • CB: Exercise more quality control over courses.
  • Both: discourage misuses of exam scores.
the full report http www nap edu catalog 10129 html
The Full Report: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10129.html
  • Explains how programs fit within the context of high schools; relationship to middle school and higher education.
  • Describes AP, IB, and alternatives in depth.
  • Reviews research on learning and its application to improving curriculum, instruction, assessment, and teacher prof. development.
  • Analyzes AP and IB programs for consistency with this research.
  • Describes misuses of these programs.
  • Presents recommendations for change.
  • Includes panel reports on Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics (web only).
content panel reports common elements
Content Panel Reports: Common Elements
  • Inadequate utilization of learning research. Programs not consistent with national standards; excessive content encourages memorization rather than conceptual learning. Insufficient interdisciplinary connections in AP.
  • Exams do not test conceptual understanding adequately.
  • Biology and chemistry courses are out of date.
  • Clear expectations for teacher and student preparation are needed.
  • Insufficient cooperation between schools and universities.
research needs
Research Needs
  • Research on effectiveness is needed. Data appears to show that AP students exempted from college courses do well, but is flawed.
  • How are these courses actually implemented?
  • What instructional practices are effective in advanced study?
  • What do the tests actually measure (what cognitive processes are elicited)?
  • How are the colleges and universities affected?
what will make all this happen
What will make all this happen?
  • Many different organizations and individuals need to cooperate to change this complex system:
    • Curriculum developers
    • School districts
    • Government
    • Colleges and universities