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a presentation on Rights-Based Approach to Development By SNTripathi IAS. Objectives. Mahatma Gandhi NREGAct of 2005 is for enhancement of livelihood security in rural areas by providing - at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household

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a presentation on

Rights-Based Approach to Development

By SNTripathi IAS

  • Mahatma Gandhi NREGAct of 2005 is for enhancement of livelihood security in rural areas by providing -
  • at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment
  • in a financial year to every household
  • whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled
  • manual work and
  • creation of durable assets by management of natural resources
  • Prevention of rural-urban migration of labourers.
mgnrega features
MGNREGA –features.
  • Right based framework
  • Time bound guarantee
  • Permissible works
  • Labour intensive works
  • Payment of wages
  • Work site management facility
  • Women empowerment
  • Transparency & Accountability
  • Use of Information Technology

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee ACT 2005A five‘Acts’ Play

Catalyzing other legislations

  • Minimum Wages Act 1948
  • Right to Information Act,2005
  • Panchayati Raj Institutions (73rd constitution amendment 1992)
  • The Scheduled Tribe and other traditional forest dwellers Act 2006: Resources to develop land
  • Right to Education Act 2009: reduce migration and enhance school participation
  • Panchayat (Extension to Schedule Areas) Act of 1996
  • Voice -vs-Choice
  • Voice through Gram Sabha- Palli to Dilli
  • Choice through Wage and Self Employment –both in farm & non-farm sector
  • Shift from “welfare to entitlement”



Independent Impact Assessment of MGNREGA

  • Studies conducted by: NFIW, NIRD, Delhi University, IIM Lucknow, ASCI
  • States of study : Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
  • Main findings
  • Women’s new found identity & social and economic empowerment.
    • Taking the wages directly through their accounts.
    • Increased spending of earnings from NREGA on food, consumer goods, education of children and offsetting debts.
  • Work participation of women and gains would be greater, if SHGs are entrusted with provision of mandatory worksite facilities.
  • Effective targeting of marginalized groups SC/ST/BPL and women
  • Work availability in villages increased post NREGA.
  • Decision-making power for women increased post NREGA with additional income.
  • Fixed working hours an incentive, work easily available.
  • Breaking caste and community issues, socio-economic benefits.
  • Easy access to credits.
  • NSSO survey, 2007-08: There was no gender differential in wage rates for MGNREG works. Considerable wage disparity in other types of work

Independent Impact Assessment of MGNREGA and LWE districts

Study conducted by: Council for Social Development

States of study: Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh

Main findings

(i) Increase in income: In LWE areas of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, income of rural labour households has gone up as a result of this programme.

  • Increase in agricultural wages: In LWE areas of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, wages in various agricultural operations have gone up as a result of implementation of MGNREGA. This has lead to an increase in fertilizer use, and quality seeds

iii) Reduction in distress migration: In village the incidence of out-migration from the village to distant places for manual works had come down as a result of MGNREGA works.

mgnrega positive trends findings
MGNREGA: Positive Trends & Findings

Increase in Agriculture Minimum Wages and wage earned per day and annual income.(Source: IIM Lucknow, NDUAT Faizabad) Bargaining power of labour has increased

Earnings per HH has increased from Rs 2795 in 2006-’07 to Rs 3150 in 2007-’08 to Rs 4060 in 2008-’09, Rs 4800 in 2009-’10

NSSO: corroborates wage data: Rs 79 per person day for 2007-2008; MGNREG data: Rs 75 per person day

Financial Inclusion: 24 lakhs accounts opened

Distress migration has reduced in many parts

“Green Jobs” created as nearly 70% works relate to water conservation, water-harvesting, restoration, renovation and desilting of water bodies, drought-proofing, plantation & afforestation

Effective targeting of marginalized groups SC/ST/BPL (Source: IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Lucknow, Administrative Staff College of India

NREGA is used as a supplementary income source during non-agricultural seasons(Source: IIM Ahmedabad)

Productivity effects of NREGA reported

- Improvement in ground water (Source: ASCI)

- Improved agricultural productivity & cropping intensity (Source: ASCI, IIT Roorkee)

- Livelihood diversification in rural areas (Source: IIM Shillong)



implementation challenges
Implementation Challenges

Lack of awareness about rights and entitlements and Workers’ inability to submit written applications and demand

Non-maintenance of records like job cards, dated receipts, Muster Rolls.

Non placement of dedicated personnel affecting critical tasks like measurement

Delay in wage payments

Poor coverage of Banks and Post Offices

Conduct and quality of social audits

Slow/no grievance redressal

Making assets more durable and productive without disturbing the 60:40 ratio through convergence

Low work completion rate


initiatives taken
Vision Plan Strategy Framework

(i) Stepping up IEC

(ii) Strengthening Monitoring Systems

Performance Output Matrix

(iii)Strengthening Resource Support & Capacity at District/ Block, GP level

Fund Flow systems

Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra as village knowledge resource centre

Dedicated Personnel


Energize Gram Sabha for Planning & Social Audit

(iv) Increasing transparency and public accountability

District level Ombudsman –out of 12 candidates 9 engaged

State Grievance Redressal Rules- in process

Social audits being conducted in campaign mode. Online reporting

Measures to check delay of payments

(v) Enlarging scope of work, improving quality of works and productivity through convergence

Strengthening Expansion of scope of works to include works on the land of small and marginal farmers


(vi) Six working groups set up for recommendation on strengthening implementation by MoRD

Initiatives taken
streamlining fund flow
Streamlining Fund Flow

(1) Labour Budgets

-Drillable to the level of the Gram Panchayats on MIS

-In consultation with State Government

-First Tranche upto 50% of the total LB

-Subsequent releases based on 60% utilization

-Monthly Progress Reports, including physical and financial performance indicators

(2) State Funds set up to provide flexibility to States in management of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA funds

(Status: 9 states including Orissa have already set up State Funds and 6 are in the process of setting up)

(3) Online Financial Proposals

(4) Core accounting systems being examined


Web enabled Household based database in public domain @

Workers’ entitlements:

Registration, Job cards, Employment demanded and allocated, Days worked, Muster rolls, Unemployment allowance, Payments and compensations due.

Work data:

Sanctioned shelf of works, Work progress, Measurement, Inventory of works/assets

Financial data:

Online Financial Proposals, Funds available/spent, Amount paid as wages, materials and administrative expenses, Track transfer of fund to various implementing agencies, Online processing of Labour Budgets


Register grievances of workers and Track complaints and action taken

Monitoring and Corrective Action: alerts for corrective action, Social Audit findings.

59 lakhs Job Cards and their Muster Rolls are in public domain. Drillable to job card, work muster roll level.

Best Government website award: Orissa is the leader

Transaction-based MIS for Transparency


public grievance redressal the ombudsman
Public Grievance Redressal: The Ombudsman

Instructions under Section 27 issued on establishment of district level Ombudsman to States

Expenditure booked under contingency

Will be an agency independent of the central or state government

Receive complaints from NREGA workers and others on any matters, consider such complaints and facilitate their disposal in accordance with law

9 Ombudsman appointed by the State Government on the recommendation of the selection committee

Ombudsman will also issue directions for conducting spot investigation, lodge FIRs against the erring parties, initiate proceedings suomotuwhen required and look into direct redressal, disciplinary and punitive actions


Convergence with SERP – CMSA

Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA) is a pro-poor agricultural initiative to ensure that highest income shall be obtained from the smallest holding.

Pilots on CMSA are taken up in 121 villages and it was found that on half-acre land, farmers have got Rs. 20,000 income using this technology.


MG NREGA: 2010-2011

  • Labor budget form 6234 GP to GoI-MoRD for 1908 crores to provide job to about 20 lakhs households for at least 60 days
    • 2009-10 : 932.58 Crores for 13.86 lakhs HH for average 40days
  • Complete BNRGSK in 314 Blocks and 6234 GP with an estimated cost of 702crores
  • Capacity building of 100866 elected PRIs and 15000 PR Officials thorough 3days training
  • Gram RozgarSanjojaksystem –Rajasthan Pattern with work-order and training for “preliminary measurement” and adhoc transfer of wages –pending fortnightly ‘measurement by JE/GPTA
  • VIII Format accounting for 3-tier as prescribed by 13th FCA and CAG –
    • PAMIS 2010-a Web-based accounting of 6234 GPs in addition to 314 PS and 30 ZP/DRDA in double-entry format with technical assistance from IIIT-Bhubaneswar & OCAC


8167 nos. of Farm Ponds with an expenditure of Rs. 19 Cr. have been made in Mayurbhanj District under MGNREGS since inception. Beneficiaries are being benefited by taking up pisciculture, duck rearing & vegetable cultivation.

Farm pond of Sri BajaiPingua

Baidyanath GP, Block - Raruan

Farm pond of Sri BhutalMajhi

Raihari GP, Block- Bijatala

awards recognition at central level
Awards & Recognition at central level
  • 2007-08 Sri VK Pandian IAS DM Ganjam and Sri SK Vashistha IAS DM Mayurbhanj got award among 22 Collectors of 605 Districts.
  • 2008-09 Sri VK Pandian IAS DM Ganjam and Dr PK Meherda IAS DM Mayurbhanj got award among 31 Collectors of 619 Districts.
  • 2009-10 NREGA MITRA –State Level
    • DM Ganjam
    • DM Kandhamal
    • DM Mayurbhanja
  • DM Sonepur presented Pua Experiment at VigyanBhawan & DM Ganjam presented PIM Initiative at LBSNAA