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a presentation on Rights-Based Approach to Development By SNTripathi IAS. Objectives. Mahatma Gandhi NREGAct of 2005 is for enhancement of livelihood security in rural areas by providing - at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household
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Rights-Based Approach to Development
By SNTripathi IAS
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee ACT 2005A five‘Acts’ Play
Catalyzing other legislations
Study conducted by: Council for Social Development
States of study: Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh
(i) Increase in income: In LWE areas of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, income of rural labour households has gone up as a result of this programme.
iii) Reduction in distress migration: In village the incidence of out-migration from the village to distant places for manual works had come down as a result of MGNREGA works.
Increase in Agriculture Minimum Wages and wage earned per day and annual income.(Source: IIM Lucknow, NDUAT Faizabad) Bargaining power of labour has increased
Earnings per HH has increased from Rs 2795 in 2006-’07 to Rs 3150 in 2007-’08 to Rs 4060 in 2008-’09, Rs 4800 in 2009-’10
NSSO: corroborates wage data: Rs 79 per person day for 2007-2008; MGNREG data: Rs 75 per person day
Financial Inclusion: 24 lakhs accounts opened
Distress migration has reduced in many parts
“Green Jobs” created as nearly 70% works relate to water conservation, water-harvesting, restoration, renovation and desilting of water bodies, drought-proofing, plantation & afforestation
Effective targeting of marginalized groups SC/ST/BPL (Source: IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Lucknow, Administrative Staff College of India
NREGA is used as a supplementary income source during non-agricultural seasons(Source: IIM Ahmedabad)
Productivity effects of NREGA reported
- Improvement in ground water (Source: ASCI)
- Improved agricultural productivity & cropping intensity (Source: ASCI, IIT Roorkee)
- Livelihood diversification in rural areas (Source: IIM Shillong)
Lack of awareness about rights and entitlements and Workers’ inability to submit written applications and demand
Non-maintenance of records like job cards, dated receipts, Muster Rolls.
Non placement of dedicated personnel affecting critical tasks like measurement
Delay in wage payments
Poor coverage of Banks and Post Offices
Conduct and quality of social audits
Slow/no grievance redressal
Making assets more durable and productive without disturbing the 60:40 ratio through convergence
Low work completion rate
(i) Stepping up IEC
(ii) Strengthening Monitoring Systems
Performance Output Matrix
(iii)Strengthening Resource Support & Capacity at District/ Block, GP level
Fund Flow systems
Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra as village knowledge resource centre
Energize Gram Sabha for Planning & Social Audit
(iv) Increasing transparency and public accountability
District level Ombudsman –out of 12 candidates 9 engaged
State Grievance Redressal Rules- in process
Social audits being conducted in campaign mode. Online reporting
Measures to check delay of payments
(v) Enlarging scope of work, improving quality of works and productivity through convergence
Strengthening Expansion of scope of works to include works on the land of small and marginal farmers
(vi) Six working groups set up for recommendation on strengthening implementation by MoRDInitiatives taken
(1) Labour Budgets
-Drillable to the level of the Gram Panchayats on MIS
-In consultation with State Government
-First Tranche upto 50% of the total LB
-Subsequent releases based on 60% utilization
-Monthly Progress Reports, including physical and financial performance indicators
(2) State Funds set up to provide flexibility to States in management of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA funds
(Status: 9 states including Orissa have already set up State Funds and 6 are in the process of setting up)
(3) Online Financial Proposals
(4) Core accounting systems being examined
Registration, Job cards, Employment demanded and allocated, Days worked, Muster rolls, Unemployment allowance, Payments and compensations due.
Sanctioned shelf of works, Work progress, Measurement, Inventory of works/assets
Online Financial Proposals, Funds available/spent, Amount paid as wages, materials and administrative expenses, Track transfer of fund to various implementing agencies, Online processing of Labour Budgets
Register grievances of workers and Track complaints and action taken
Monitoring and Corrective Action: alerts for corrective action, Social Audit findings.
59 lakhs Job Cards and their Muster Rolls are in public domain. Drillable to job card, work muster roll level.
Best Government website award: Orissa is the leader
Transaction-based MIS for Transparency
Instructions under Section 27 issued on establishment of district level Ombudsman to States
Expenditure booked under contingency
Will be an agency independent of the central or state government
Receive complaints from NREGA workers and others on any matters, consider such complaints and facilitate their disposal in accordance with law
9 Ombudsman appointed by the State Government on the recommendation of the selection committee
Ombudsman will also issue directions for conducting spot investigation, lodge FIRs against the erring parties, initiate proceedings suomotuwhen required and look into direct redressal, disciplinary and punitive actions
Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA) is a pro-poor agricultural initiative to ensure that highest income shall be obtained from the smallest holding.
Pilots on CMSA are taken up in 121 villages and it was found that on half-acre land, farmers have got Rs. 20,000 income using this technology.Convergence
8167 nos. of Farm Ponds with an expenditure of Rs. 19 Cr. have been made in Mayurbhanj District under MGNREGS since inception. Beneficiaries are being benefited by taking up pisciculture, duck rearing & vegetable cultivation.
Farm pond of Sri BajaiPingua
Baidyanath GP, Block - Raruan
Farm pond of Sri BhutalMajhi
Raihari GP, Block- Bijatala