Housekeeping. Purpose and goals Meeting times Syllabus Texts Online Http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/raf/recordisplay.cfm?deid=12460 Next class reading materials Course outline Other issues?. What is Risk? What is Ecological Risk Assessment?. Definition.
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The noun "risk" has 4 senses in WordNet.1. hazard, jeopardy, peril, risk -- (a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune; "drinking alcohol is a health hazard")
2. risk, peril, danger -- (a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury; "he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime"; "there was a danger he would do the wrong thing")
3. risk, risk of infection -- (the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred)
4. risk, risk of exposure -- (the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent)
b. Working for one year in a coal mine (assuming a 40 hour working week).
c. Living 4 km from a nuclear reactor for 12 months.
d. Eating peanut butter sandwiches for lunch three times a week for 20 years.
e. Drinking two glasses of wine, twice per weekend, for 10 years.
Activities that increase chance of death by one in a million per year (after Wilson 1979).
Activities Cause of death
Smoking 1.4 cigarettes Cancer, heart disease
Spending 1 hour in a coal mine Black lung disease
Traveling 15 km by bicycle Accident
Traveling 500 km by car Accident
Flying 1500 km by jet Accident
Living 2 months in brick bldg Cancer from radioactivity
One chest X-ray Cancer from radiation
Living 2 months w/a smoker Cancer, heart disease
Eating 40 tblspns peanut butter Liver cancer
Living 50 yrs w/in 8 km nuclear reactor Cancer from radiation (accident)
Living 20 years near a PVC plant Cancer from vinyl chloride
Drinking Miami water for 1 year Cancer from chloroform
Drinking ½ liter of wine Cirrhosis of the liver
- Ecological risk assessments are developed within a risk management context to evaluate
human-induced changes that are considered undesirable. Changes often considered undesirable are those that alter important structural or functional characteristics or components of ecosystems.
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.