Comenius 2010-2012 “EuropeanCulturalDiversity is OurCommonWealth” Italy - 7th to 11th November 2011 Estonia 2011
Kohtla-Järve Vahtra põhikool presents
Estonian mythology is closely related to Finnish, including elements of the Urals and the Finno-Ugric heritage, as well as the influence of the Baltic and Germanic mythology.
Characters of Estonian Folk Tales. Salme Pekko(Pekko) Тааrа (Тооrа, Тuuri) Metsavaim
Among Estonian Earthly Gods were: Metsik (God of fertility, protector of fields and livestock) Metsaisa(forest spirit) Tuule-ema(Mother-wind) Rõugutaja (Patron of pregnant women and mothers)
In Estonian mythology there are also giants -Toel the Great and his wife, Piret.
Giant-farmer, warrior, who fought against the enemies of his people. Suur Tõll and his wife, Piret, height of 3,5 meters, on the island Kuressaare.
But Kalevipoeg is the main hero-giant of ancient national songs of people of Estonia. Kalevipoeg means:the son of Kalev.
On the basis of folk tales and songs Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald wrote the epic "Kalevipoeg" such as the Finnish Kalevala. Kalevipoeg epic was published between 1857-1861 and was the beginning of the Estonian national literature. The idea of the epic Kalevipoeg belonged to Friedrich Robert Faehlmann, 1798-1850. Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803–1882) writer and doctor
Kreutzwald collected oral stories and put them together into a unified whole. • These tales mainly interpret various natural objects and features as traces of Kalevipoeg's deeds and have similarities with national epics from neighbouring regions, especially the Finnish Kalevala and also in Scandinavia.
The poem “Kalevipoeg” consists of twenty Cantos. Canto I.- The marriages of Salme and Linda Canto II.- The death of Kalev Canto III.- The fate of Linda Canto IV. - The island maiden Canto V. - The Kalevide and the Finnish sorcerer Canto VI. - The Kalevide and the swordsmiths Canto VII. - The return of the Kalevide Canto VIII. - The contest and parting of the brothers Canto IX.- Rumours of war Canto X.- The heroes and the Water-Demon Canto XI. - The loss of the sword Canto XII.- The fight with the sorcerer's sons Canto XIII. - The Kalevide's first journey to Hades Canto XIV. - The palace of Sarvik Canto XV. - The marriage of the sisters Canto XVI.- The voyage of the Kalevide Canto XVII. - The heroes and the dwarf Canto XVIII.- The Kalevide's journey to Põrgu (Hell) Canto XIX. - The last feast of the heroes Canto XX.- Armageddon
This poem tells the story of the hero's life, about the selfless service of Kalevipoeg to the people. He did not earn wealth, and he did not aspire to it, but he gave everything, including his life.
The poem begins with the story of courtship and marriage of the old Kalev – Kalevipoeg`s father, with a story about the birth and childhood of the fairy tale hero. Kalevipoeg was the youngest son in the family, born after the death of his father.
Courtshipandmarriageof oldKalev – the father ofKalevipoeg "Kalev seeks Linda" Illustrated by KristjanRaud (1865-1943)
Kalev is the legendary giant, the founder of the state principality on the Viru shore, the father of the Estonian national hero Kalevipoeg. On behalf of Kalev, perhaps derives the old name of Tallinn - Kolyvan.
"The Return of Kaleva from Pskov" Kalev went to Russia to bring boards for the building of towns.
According to the legend, Kalev was buried under Tallinn Toompea Hill (Vyshgorod), which was formed of huge stone boulders, coached by his wife Linda, to cover the grave of her dead husband.
According to the legend, Lake Ülemiste (Top) appeared from the tears of Linda on the hill Lasnamyagi.
The monument of weeping Linda, the wife of old Kaleva, on Lindamyagi in Tallinn, the sculptor August Veytsenberg.
From early childhood Kalevipoeg shows amazing, superhuman force: plays with huge stones, uproots the mighty pines. As an adult, he makes a lot of feats, gets the princely authority over the whole land of Estonia, founded the nation's capital - the city Lindanise, the current Tallinn.
It was believed that the plains on the banks of the Viru (ancient land of Estonia) is the place where Kalevipoeg mowed the forest.
Kalevipoeg was a powerful giant. He skettered the stones and walked through deep water.
Kalevipoeg was said to have dug a well in Lake Männikjärve, the second largest lake in the Endla Nature Reserve.
Kalevipoeg travelled to the hell and to the edge of the worldto get knowledge.
In his wanderings Kalevipoeg looked for the knowledge. He dreamt by his hands: Touch the border of the world Where high dome of the sky Converge to the ground wide, Where blue-silkwalls are On the lower logs...
Kalevipoegis an adventurous hero who in his work, in the fight against foreign invaders gained strength, courage, intelligence, diligence and love of country. People put in his image the dream to have a powerful defender of their fatherland.
The native place is in danger. Kalev is on the sea-eagle
Kalevipoeg is a fighter against evil spirits, with the oppressors of the people and against foreign enemies.
He uses planks edgewise as weapons 'Kalevipoeg‘ by K. Lukhtein
Kalevipoegshowed his extraordinary strength in the legend of the ring of virgin Ilmaneytsi, which she dropped into a well. Kalevipoeg lowered for the ring, but the evil rolled a millstone into the well. Kalevipoeg returned with the millstone on his finger, which he mistook for the ring.
Kalevipoeg fought with the evil with the help of the planks, but they broke in the fight.
The hedgehog gave him the advice to beat by the edge of the planks, for which the hedgehog received the prickly coat from Kalevipoeg.
He struggled all his life with the evil spirits - demons vanapaganami ("old heathens"). Sometimes he fought with the oppressors of the people (threw stones at the homestead evil landlord, etc.), he seldom fought against foreign enemies.
Kalevipoeg foresaw the difficult time for his people and he bequeathed: Be strong like rocksLike walls of iron!Be in a battle like the towers,Forged from steel!Stand like an oak forest,As the cliffs above the surf!Vigilant shield of freedom Hold in your hand ...
Kalevipoeg made a lot of good, however, no good will expiate the crime committed in his youth. Once, during a quarrel at a feast Kalevipoeg killed a man, and many years later, he understood the punishment: he was badly wounded by his own sword and he died.
However, in folk tales there are two versions of the death of Kalevipoeg: his enemies cut his feet down when he was sleeping or drinking from the river.
With the death of Kalevipoeg his service to people is not ended. His struggle with the forces of evil is not finished too. Kalevipoeg had been feasting for two days in the wards of the supreme god of ancient Estonians - Taara, and then he was put on the new service - to guard the entrance to the underworld not allowing the Evil to leap out and bring misery to people.
He turned into a heroic horse and the evil carried him to hell, where he was chained to the gates of hell and he had to guard the evil not allowing him to come out of the underworld.