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Cultural Diversity . Chapter 2 section 2 Cultural Variation. George Murdock. Anthropologist Examined 100’s of different cultures. Looked for general traits that were common to all cultures. Compiled a list of over 65 Cultural Universals.

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cultural diversity

Cultural Diversity

Chapter 2 section 2

Cultural Variation

george murdock
George Murdock
  • Anthropologist
  • Examined 100’s of different cultures.
  • Looked for general traits that were common to all cultures.
  • Compiled a list of over 65 Cultural Universals.
  • Examples: Body adornment, cooking, dancing and family.
george murdock3
George Murdock
  • Stated that the make up of families varies from culture to culture.
  • The family ensures that new members will be added to society and cared for until old enough to fend for themselves.
  • Made the argument that in all cultures the purpose of families is the same.
marvin harris
Marvin Harris
  • Anthropologist
  • Wrote a book titled Cannibals and Kings.
  • Studied the religious prohibition in India against killing cows even when food shortages exist.
  • Suggested that this prohibition was related to the development of India’s agriculture.
  • Cows aren’t eaten but are widely used to plow the land for planting and for their milk.
  • Based upon this one can understand the need for the prohibition of killing cows.
edwin sutherland
Edwin Sutherland
  • Criminologist
  • Developed the idea or concept of Subculture, through his work on crime and juvenile delinquency.
  • In addition to deviant subcultures, sociologist today recognize age, gender, ethnic, religious, political, geographic, social-class, and occupational subcultures.
edwin sutherland6
Edwin Sutherland
  • Example of Subculture
  • Chinatown in San Francisco
  • The Chinese use broad American traits, like going to public school, playing with toys, and working at similar jobs.
  • The culture of Chinatown includes Chinese language, specific foods, and celebrations not shared by most Americans. (Chinese New Year) (usually celebrated sometime in late January to mid February)
margaret mead
Margaret Mead
  • Anthropologist
  • Tried to determine if differences in basic temperments result mainly from inherited characteristics or from cultural influences. (nature vs. nurture)
  • She studied several small societies in New Guinea: The Arapesh and The Mundugumor
  • She determined that temperment is mainly the result of culture rather than biology. (Nurture sets the tone of the culture not nature)