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Amniotic Fluid Embolism. Page 251. Defition. Amniotic Fluid Embolism is a complex condition characterized by the abrupt onset of pulmonary embolism, shock and DIC. Incidence varies greatly. Etiology. Pressure increasing: uterinehypertonus,tetanic,oxytocin open vessles:traumatic, laceration

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defition
Defition
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism is a complex condition characterized by the abrupt onset of pulmonary embolism, shock and DIC.
  • Incidence varies greatly.
etiology
Etiology
  • Pressure increasing:
  • uterinehypertonus,tetanic,oxytocin
  • open vessles:traumatic, laceration
  • membrane changing:fetal death,dystocia
pathophysiology
pathophysiology
  • Emblus(amniotic fluid component+fibrin)-----allergic reaction
  • --mechanic block+vagus nerve(spasm)----blood return decreasing---peripheral circulation faiture
  • --hypertetion of pulmonary artery---pulmonary edema---left heart faiure+respiratory failure
  • --general ischemia—renal failure
  • --coagulopathy---DIC
clinical manifestation
Clinical manifestation
  • A. time of onset
  • B. circulation and respiratory failure
  • C. DIC----bleeding
  • D. renal failure
diagnosis
diagnosis
  • Emergent : typical clinical manifestation
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Definitive diagnosis: aspiration:debris +DIC
  • autopsy
treatment
treatment
  • 1.correct R&C failure
  • 2.correct coagulopathy, DIC, renal dysfunction
  • 3.Anti-allergic reaction
  • 4.obstetric management
you should rember
You should rember!
  • It is axiomatic that when a choice must be made, maternal considerations take perference over those of the fetus
prognosis
Prognosis
  • Perinatal outcomes are dismal with amniotic fluid embolism. Few conditions in medicine have potential for such sudden devastation. We are aware of one case during labor in which mother and baby not only died, but the visiting grandmother also suffered a fatal myocardial infarction during resuscitation efforts on her daughter!
genetic counseling
Genetic counseling
  • 1.significance of genetic counseling
  • 2.steps
  • A.make the definitive diagnosis
  • genetic disease/congenital disease/familial disease/
  • B.predict the effects on their offspring
  • Autosomal dominant disease:expressed even when only one chromosome of a pair carries an abnormal allele
slide12
Autosomal recessive disease: expressed only when both chromosomes of a pair carry an abnormal allele.
  • X-linked dominant
  • X-linked recessive
  • Multiple-gene disorders
  • Chromosomal disorders
3 risk assessment
3.risk assessment
  • Appreciation of disk for a genetic condition is directly related to the degree of assurance that a diagnosis truly exists without an exact diagnosis, a risk assessment is difficult or impossible. Four questions present themselves each time a patient is seen by a geneticist or genetic counselor:
slide14
1. What diagnostic entity is being considered?
  • 2.what is the cause?
  • 3.might it happen again?
  • 4.what diagnostic or management options are available?
slide15
An accurate diagnosis or possible diagnosis helps address the first two questions. Risk assessment and calculations aim to answer the third question. Finally , patients’ perception of risk is directly tied to their understanding of the diagnostic tests and avaible treatments.
genetic counseling1
Genetic counseling
  • A.premarriage counseling
  • B.counseling contents
  • (1) comprehend the medical facts,including the diagnosis,probable course of the disorder and the available management
  • (2)appreciate the may heredity contributes to the disorder and the risk of recurrence in specified relatives
slide17
(3)understand the options for dealing with the risk of recurrence
  • (4)choose the course of action that seems appropriate to them in view of their risk and the family goals and act in accordance with that decision
  • (5)make the best possible adjustment to the disorder in an effected member and to the risk of recurrence of that disorder.
notes
notes
  • It must be provided in the atmosphere of reproductive choice and options.Sophisticated prenatal diagnostic testing requires coordinated educational and psychosocial support. Patients referred for prenatal diagnosis should be provided some information before their arrival regarding the tests for which they are being referred.
words
words
  • Genotype Phenotype
  • Alleles Polymorphisms
  • Homozygous Heterozygous
  • Pedigree sibship
  • Risk of recurrence
genetic screening
Genetic screening
  • Carrier screening
  • Methods for genetic screening
  • 1.amniocentesis( traditional---,early----)
  • 2.chorionic villus sampling
  • 3.fetograthy 4.fetoscopy
  • 5.B-ultrasound
  • 6.percutaneous umbilical blood sampling
  • 7.fetocardiogram 8.MRI
definition
Definition
  • Fetal distress is a kind of syndrome presenting signs of fetal hypoxia which will threaten the health and life of fetus
etiology1
Etiology
  • Fetal oxygen supplied from:
    • maternal circulation-----placenta------umbilical cord------fetus
  • maternal factors
    • cardiovescular diseases
    • acute bleeding
    • uterus placental blood supplied
etiology2
Etiology
  • Fetal factors
    • cardiovescular dysfunction
    • deformity
  • umbilical cord and placental factors
    • abnormal cord (page 211):entanglement,nuchal umbilical cord
pathophysiology1
pathophysiology
  • Hypoxia!
    • Acidosis----sympathetic nerve excited----
      • hypertension,
      • tachycardia(initial signs)
    • profound acidosis-----vagus nerve----
      • hypotension,
      • bradycardia,
      • hyperperistalsis----meconium discharge
    • chronic condition:
      • nutritional deficiency----IUGR
clinical manifestation1
Clinical manifestation
  • Chronic fetal distress
    • IUGR (FGR)
    • dysfunction of maternal-placental-fetal unit
    • fetal heart monitoring
    • fetal movement calculation
    • amnioscopy
slide27
产前的监护
  • 产前监护包括检查胎动,胎心率,生物物理相评分,宫内Apgar评分,胎儿生长速度,胎盘、脐带、胎儿血流以及一些生化检查。
  • 1. 胎动:母亲感知胎动的记录:胎动是胎儿情况良好的一种表现,从孕18-20周起,孕妇可以自觉胎动,正常情况下,12小时内胎动不得少于10次,若少于10次或逐日下降超过50%,表示胎儿有缺氧的可能;如果胎儿突然剧烈活动,接着胎动停止,往往提示胎儿宫内急性缺氧,它的危险性更大。国外有文献报道,分娩前7天孕妇感到胎动减少预示“不良围生期结局”,包括分娩时胎心异常,低Apgar评分甚至胎死宫内或死胎等。
slide28
羊水检查
  • 羊水检查:尽管羊水减少与胎儿宫内窘迫关系的机制目前还不清楚,但临床观察确实证实了这一现象,但关于羊水过少的诊断标准也不完全一致,有研究表明,羊水最深处<3cm比羊水指数<8cm预测缺氧的价值更大。
clinical manifestation2
Clinical manifestation
  • Acute fetal distress
    • fetal heart rate
    • characteristics of fluid
    • fetal movement
    • acidosis
slide30
分娩时的监测
  • 1. 羊水胎粪污染:宫内有胎粪排入羊水可能是一种正常的生理现象,是随着胎儿成熟过程中不断增强的迷走神经的张力而引起的。足月儿中羊水胎粪污染占10-15%,过期儿中占25-50%。因而关于分娩过程中羊水胎粪污染的重要意义尚有争议,羊水有胎粪污染时应将胎粪排出分为早期与晚期
continuous
continuous
  • 早期胎粪排出是指在活跃期或其前破膜的时候就发现羊水胎粪污染,又进一步分为轻或重度,轻重程度的区分是以胎粪排出量(羊水的颜色)为基础;晚期胎粪排出指第二产程中发盅蛩シ辔廴荆庖郧把蛩乔辶恋摹T缙谇岫却笤颊佳蛩シ辔廴镜54%,分娩后与对照组相比无明显差异;早期重度占25%,这种情况下的新生儿结局不良甚至胎死宫内或新生儿死亡的比例大大增加,与胎心异常及其他导致新生儿异常的产科因素相关; 而晚期羊水胎粪污染大约占21%, 其1分钟及5分钟Apgar评分<7分者是对照组的2-3倍以上,但无统计学差异,与某些宫内胎心异常联合出现使Apgar评分大大降低。
continuous1
continuous
  • 因此,有羊水胎粪污染的胎儿是否异常,最关键的是判断胎粪排出的时间及量的多少,临床上估计胎粪排出的时间可以通过检查胎盘胎膜及新生儿来加以判断,如下表1-1:
  • 表1-1 出生前胎粪排出时间的判断
  • 临床/病理特点 距出生的大致时间
  • 羊膜见载满色素的巨噬细胞 >1小时
  • 绒毛见载满色素的巨噬细胞 >3小时
  • 胎儿指甲有胎粪污染 >4-6小时
definition1
definition
  • The diagnosis of PROM is made whenever the bag of water ruptures before the onset of true labor.
incidence
incidence
  • Varied greatly 2.7%--17%
  • PROM is causally related to about 10% perinatal deaths regardless of gestation age. Its occurrence before term adds the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)from hyaline membrane disease to the risk of chorioamnionitis neonatal sepsis associated with ascending infection.
etiology3
etiology
  • The exact etiology of PROM remains unknown, there have been many postulated causes, but a single common denominator has not yet been found.
  • Such as: trauma/cervical incompetence/cervical lacerations/cervical operations/polyhydramnios/multiple gestations/smokers/infection:subclinical infection, chorioamnionitis, patients who had coitus within 7 days before delivery.
diagnosis1
diagnosis
  • Fern pattern detection
  • PH determination
  • accuracy rate:93-96%
  • False-positive:
  • cervicitis/vaginitis/presence of semen ,alkaline urine/blood in vagina
management
management
  • Gestational age
  • immature:<28w----- induction
  • preterm:28—35w---controversial
  • tocolytics----controversial1)labor can be one of the signs of chorioamnionitis---infection problem may worsen2)less effective:only 24 hours can be gained by using tocolytics in these patients, all of these patients should be kept at bed rest and evaluated for first signs of infection.
  • >36w---inducible cervix---induction
  • not favorable---24-48hs,90%labor