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America and World War II

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  1. America and World War II 1929-1945

  2. Foreign Policy Leading up to WWII • Washington Conference (1921-1922) • 8 great powers • Set limits on armaments • Reaffirmed Open Door Policy • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) • Pledge not to use military force • The League of Nations • Met continuously in Geneva, Switzerland to ensure peace • The Treaty of Versailles • 1933: few believed it would hold up with rise of dictatorships in Japan, Germany, and Italy

  3. Hoover’s Foreign Policy • Isolationism • Viewed peace conferences and treaties as moral efforts • Opposed using economic sanctions against aggressors

  4. Japanese Aggression in Manchuria • Japan defied the League of Nations and the Open Door policy by invading China in 1931 • Established a puppet government in Manchuria • League of Nations only passed a resolution condemning Japan’s actions

  5. Stimson Doctrine • U.S. response stronger than the League’s response • Secretary of State Stimson stated that the U.S. would honor the Nine-Power Treaty (1922) and refused to recognize the Chinese government in Manchuria • League of Nations endorsed the Doctrine

  6. Latin America • 1929: Hoover went on a goodwill tour of the region • Ended interventionist policies of Taft and Wilson • Arranged for U.S. troops to leave Nicaragua in 1933 • Negotiated a treaty with Haiti to remove all U.S. troops by 1934

  7. Franklin Roosevelt’s Policies, 1933-1938 The Great Depression resulted in mostly isolationism during his 1st term.

  8. Good-Neighbor Policy • 1933: Roosevelt promised a “policy of the good neighbor” toward other nations of the Western Hemisphere • Sought Latin America’s cooperation in defending the region from potential danger of Germany and Italy • Pan-American Conferences • Cuba: Congress nullified the Platt Amendment and only retained Guantanamo Bay • Mexico seized oil properties held by U.S. companies and Roosevelt did not intervene; only helped to negotiate settlements

  9. Economic Diplomacy • London Economic Conference (1933) • Roosevelt withdrew support after proposals were made to stabilize currencies • Recognition of the Soviet Union • Wanted to increase trade and boost economy • Philippines • Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) • Gradual removal of U.S. • Complete independence by 1946 • Reciprocal Trade Agreements • Lowered tariffs • President given power to reduce tariffs by 50% for nations that reciprocated

  10. Events Abroad • Fascism and Aggressive Militarism • Italy • Germany • Japan

  11. American Isolationists • U.S. was nationalistic, but expressed itself differently than the fascists and militarists • Revisionist History of WWI • 1930’s belief that the U.S. entry into WWI had been a mistake • Neutrality Acts • 1935: authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipments and forbade U.S. citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations • 1936: forbade loans to belligerents • Forbade shipment of arms to opposing sides in the civil war in Spain • America First Committee • 1940: Isolationists worried about FDR’s pro-British policies • Speakers like Charles Lindbergh traveled country warning about the dangers of joining the war

  12. Prelude to War • Appeasement • Ethiopia, 1935 • Rhineland, 1936 • China, 1937 • Sudetenland, 1938 • U.S. Response • Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech • FDR dropped ideas due to isolationist opposition • Preparedness • Arms Build-Up

  13. From Neutrality to War, 1939-1941 • Invasion of Poland • Blitzkrieg • Changing U.S. Policy • “Cash and Carry” • Selective Service Act (1940) • Destroyers-for-bases Deal

  14. The Election of 1940 • Wendell Willkie (R) • Results • FDR won for 3rd time with 54% of popular vote • Why did he win? • Strong economic recovers due to arms buildup • Fear of war by voters, so stuck with experience leader

  15. Arsenal of Democracy • FDR’s Four Freedoms Speech • Committed to • Freedom of speech • Freedom of religion • Freedom from want • Freedom from fear • Lend-Lease Act • Atlantic Charter • Affirmed peace objectives at end of war • Self-determination • No territorial expansion • Free trade • Shoot-on-Sight

  16. Disputes with Japan • U.S. Economic Action • Froze Japanese assets in U.S. • Cut off access to U.S. materials, including oil • Negotiations • Pearl Harbor • Partial Surprise • Declaration of War

  17. The Home Front • Industrial Production • War Production Board • Office of War Mobilization • Wages, prices, and rationing • Office of Price Administration • Unions • Financing the War • Increased income tax • War Bonds

  18. Impact on Society • African Americans • Double “V” Slogan • NAACP membership increased • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) created • Mexican Americans • Braceros allowed to enter work force • Zoot Suit Riots broke out in LA • Native Americans • Japanese Americans • Executive Order 9066 • Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) • Women • Propaganda • Office of War Information

  19. Fighting Germany • Defense at sea, attacks by air • From North Africa to Italy • From D day to victory in Europe • German surrender and discovery of the Holocaust

  20. Fighting Japan • Turning point, 1942 • Battle of Midway • Island-hopping • Major battles • Battle of Leyte Gulf: re-occupation of the Philippines • Battle of Okinawa • Atomic bombs • Manhattan Project/Alamogordo, NM • Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Japan surrenders

  21. Wartime Conferences • The Big Three (U.S., Soviet Union, and Great Britain) • Tehran • Brits and Americans would begin drive to liberate France • Yalta • Divide Germany into 4 zones • Soviets to enter war against Japan • United Nations would be formed • Death of FDR • April 12, 1945 • Potsdam • Agreed to issue a warning to Japan to surrender unconditionally • Hold war-crime trials of Nazi leaders

  22. The War’s Legacy • Costs • 300,000 Americans died and 800,000 wounded • $320 billion • Federal spending had increased 1000% between 1939-1945 • National debt: $250 billion (5x what it had been in 1941) • The United Nations • Expectations • The Cold War Begins