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America and World War II. APUSH Mr. McElhaney. 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany Prelude to war: policy of neutrality The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war Fighting a multi-front war

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america and world war ii

America and World War II


Mr. McElhaney

ap outline
21. The Second World War

The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany

Prelude to war: policy of neutrality

The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war

Fighting a multi-front war

Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences

The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age

22. The Home Front During the War

Wartime mobilization of the economy

Urban migration and demographic changes

Women, work, and family during the war

Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime

War and regional development

Expansion of government power

AP Outline
terms to know
Treaty of Versailles

Good Neighbor Policy

Washington Naval Conference, 1922

Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928

Stimson Doctrine

Trade Agreements Act

Neutrality Act

Axis Alliance

Munich Agreement

Lend-Lease Act, 1941

German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Selective Training and Service Act

Tripartite Pact

Maginot Line

Battle of Britain/ Operation Sea Lion

Atlantic Charter, 1941

Hideki Tojo/Japan

War Powers Act

Charles A. Lindbergh (1930s)

America First Committee

Johnson (Foreign Securities) Act, 1934

Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934

Reciprocal Trade Agreements, 1934-1940

Europe then Japan

National War Labor Board

Japanese-American Internment



Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts, 1935-1940

Buenos Aires Conference, 1936

Four Freedoms Speech

Rosie the Riveter

War Production Board

Tuskegee Airmen

Phillip Randolph

Wartime Conferences







Manhattan Project

Robert Oppenheime

Los Alamos, Alamogordo

Harry S. Truman


Marshall Plan

Iron Curtain

Terms to Know
questions pre world war ii
Questions- Pre-World War II
  • Basic questions you should be able to answer:
  • How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930’s?
  • Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War?
  • How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict?
  • How was FDR’s “Good Neighbor” policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890’s?
quiz 3 13
Quiz 3-13
  • Respond to two of the following:
  • How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration?
  • Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China.
  • What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?
quiz 3 14
Quiz 3-14
  • Can the British and French be justifiably criticized for appeasing Hitler? Explain
united states status after wwi
United States Status After WWI
  • After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans)
  • Few international treaties:
    • Washington Naval Conference-limits naval armaments
    • Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war
    • Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments
    • Trade drives American motives
    • Reduction of interference in Latin America
  • Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!
fdr and foreign affairs
FDR and Foreign Affairs
  • Similar to Wilson wanted to use power to maintain order
    • Moral and just principles
    • However, must abide by public opinion which is Isolationist
  • Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State
  • Basic views:
      • Isolation is not a lasting policy
      • Technology impacts distance of oceans
      • Important to maintain American interests
  • Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners
good neighbor policy
“Good Neighbor” Policy
  • FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particular
  • Continued attempt begun with Hoover
  • Cooperation and non-interventionist
  • Example: 1933 Montivideo International Conference- Uruguay
    • Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
  • Withdrew troops from Haiti
  • Did not send troops to Cuba
  • 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement
mussolini italian right wing dictator
Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator
  • Came to power in 1922
  • Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist
  • Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy
  • Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps)
  • Nationalist
  • Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936
halle selassie
Halle Selassie
  • Ethiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of Nations
  • This was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctions
  • Haile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.
hitler rises to power
Hitler Rises to Power
  • Germany has problems
  • Economic Depression
  • Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one group
  • Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)
factors that contributed to hitler s rise
Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise
  • Economic depression
  • Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I)
    • Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire)
    • Striped Germany of military, navy, air force
    • Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources)
    • German had to take explicit blame for the war
    • Pay War Repartitions
  • Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control
  • Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
hitler and hindenburg
Hitler and Hindenburg
  • New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic
hitler once in power
Hitler-Once in Power
  • Hitler vows to make Germany great again
  • To “Claim it’s rightful place in the Sun.”
  • Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powers
  • Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf)
    • Rearm Germany
    • Unite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later Czchechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland)
    • Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies)
    • Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists
european appeasement
European Appeasement
  • One of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle)
  • The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands.
  • The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful.
  • By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global War
  • British Prime Minister Nevielle Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (“Peace in Our Time”)
why did the allies appease hitler
Why did the Allies appease Hitler?
  • Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh
  • All consuming desire for peace
  • Rearmament
  • Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual location
  • Anschluss-
  • Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland,
  • 1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
  • 1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-
failure of the league of nations
Failure of the League of Nations
  • Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent war
  • Problems: US is not part of
  • It did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use force
  • Only weapon was economic embargo and public pressure
  • When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia)
  • The international body will have little or no effect
china still weak
China Still Weak
  • After WWI China remains weak
  • “Open Door” Reinforced
  • Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung
  • Wanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US.
  • Want to control China’s abundant natural resources
  • Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China.
  • Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria
japan invades manchuria 1931
Japan invades Manchuria 1931
  • Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials)
  • Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria
  • Military- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo.
  • Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods
results of japanese invasion of manchuria
Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria
  • US President was Hoover (1932)
  • Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression-
  • US will not recognize territorial changes-
  • League of Nations condemns the attack on China
  • Japan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored)
  • No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)
  • 200,000 civilians killed
  • Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”
chinese fight
Chinese Fight
  • Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.
american neutrality
American Neutrality
  • The Neutrality Act of 1935- members of congress, wanted to keep America out of war
  • Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialists
  • Imposed an embargo on warring nations
  • Forbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countries
  • Gave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent ships
  • Neutrality Act 1936- forbade loans to belligerent countries
  • Neutrality Act 1937- response to the Spanish Civil War
    • Goods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only)
more neutrality
More Neutrality
  • Many groups in America wanted Isolation
  • Irish, German- Americans
  • Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifists
  • Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved)
spanish civil war
Spanish Civil War
  • Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco-
  • Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks.
  • Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls)
  • American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause
  • FDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers
german soviet non aggression pact
German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
  • August 23, 1939- Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland-
  • Germans invade Poland in the West
  • Russians invade Poland in the East
  • World War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereignty
  • US responds with a renewed Neutrality act 1939- “cash and carry” would aid allies alone
the phony war
The “Phony War”
  • September 1939-April 1940
  • Germany rapidly beat Poland “Blitzkrieg”
  • France and Britain mobilized and waited for attack
  • April 1940 Denmark, Norway,
  • May 1940 Belgium and France
  • Dunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in charge
  • Paris Falls June 1940
  • England stands alone “Battle of Britain”
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • Brits were alone as of June 1940
  • Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude:
  • “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
united states reacts to war debate 1940 isolationist or internationalist

America First Committee

Charles A Lindberg

“Intervention is detrimental to American interests”


Committee to Defend America

Best way to keep US out of war is to Help allies fight the Germans

Roosevelt is sympathetic

United States Reacts to WarDebate 1940: Isolationist or Internationalist
wining the war
Wining the War
  • To what extent was the mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory?
  • How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?
roosevelt s four freedom s speech january 1941
Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941
  • To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness
  • “…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger.
  • That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history.
  • The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency.
  • Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.
four freedoms continued
Four Freedoms Continued
  • “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.
  • The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.
  • The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.
  • The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”