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THE HEART. A PRESENTATION OF THE HEART AND ITS FUNCTIONS. By Tina Harris 25 -7-11. Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from: http://images.all-free-download.com Rottweiler retrieved 17-7-11 from: http://www.buttonland.com/dog_clipart/. The Heart.

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slide1

THE HEART

A PRESENTATION OF THE HEART AND ITS FUNCTIONS.

By Tina Harris

25-7-11

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from: http://images.all-free-download.com

Rottweiler retrieved 17-7-11 from: http://www.buttonland.com/dog_clipart/

slide2

TheHeart

  • The Heart is a hollow muscular organ that lies within in the thoracic cavity.
  • The heart consists of two pumps that operate simultaneously to pump blood into the Pulmonary (Lungs) and Systemic (Body) circulatory systems.
  • The Heart is separated into left and right sides.
  • Each side has two chambers, the Atrium and Ventricle.

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from :

http://www.zimbio.com/Emo/articles/KjErLtukm_K/heart+diagram+enchanted+learning

slide3

CranialVenaCava

(From Body)

  • Arteries takebloodawayfromthe heartand Veins carrybloodbackto the heart.
  • Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the Right Atrium via the Vena Cava, passes through the Right Atrioventricular valve.
  • The blood exits theheartviathe Pulmonary Artery,andistakentotheLungs (pulmonary), where itis oxygenated viagasexchange.

Pulmonary Artery

(To Lungs)

RightAtrioventricularvalve

CaudalVenaCava

(From Body)

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from :

http://www.zimbio.com/Emo/articles/KjErLtukm_K/heart+diagram+enchanted+learning

Altered by Tina Harris.

slide4

Cranial

VenaCava

(From Body)

Aorta

(To Body)

  • Oxygenated blood re-enters the Left Atrium of the Heart via the Pulmonary Veins.
  • The oxygenated blood passes through the Left Atrioventricular Valve to the Left ventricle.
  • The Aorta transports the blood to the body (systemic).
  • Oxygenated blood flow is shown in red in the diagram. Deoxygenated blood flow is shown in blue.

Pulmonary

Artery

(To Lungs)

Left Atrioventricular Valve

Right

Atrioventricular

valve

Caudal

VenaCava

(From Body)

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from :

http://www.zimbio.com/Emo/articles/KjErLtukm_K/heart+diagram+enchanted+learning

Altered by Tina Harris.

slide5

HeartValves

  • The heart has four valves that prevent the back flow of blood.
  • Left and right Atrioventricular valves (AV valves) are attached to the Chordae Tendinae, which is attached by Papillary muscles to the ventricle wall.
  • AV valves are also called Mitral or Bicuspid valves, as they have two cusps. A cusp is a flap of valve tissue.
  • AV Valves prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricles, back into the Atria.

ChordaeTendinae

Left Atrioventricular Valve

Right

Atrioventricular

valve

Papillary Muscle

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from :

http://www.zimbio.com/Emo/articles/KjErLtukm_K/heart+diagram+enchanted+learning

Altered by Tina Harris.

slide6

Left

Semilunar

Valve

  • The Right Semilunar Valve (SL) valve is situated at the base of the pulmonary artery.
  • The Left Semilunar Valve (SL) is situated at the base of the Aorta.
  • Semilunar Valves are Tricuspid as each valve has three crescent moon shaped cusps.
  • Semilunar valves prevent the backflow of blood from the Pulmonary artery and Aorta, back into the ventricles.

Right Semilunar

Valve

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from :

http://www.zimbio.com/Emo/articles/KjErLtukm_K/heart+diagram+enchanted+learning

Altered by Tina Harris.

slide7

https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/display/BIOE414/Introduction

ElectricalActivityof the Heart

  • Pacemaker cells in the Sino- Atrial (SA) node contract and initiate depolarisation (electrical Activity).
  • Both atria depolarise and contract, sending blood to ventricles. Atrioventricular valves close.
  • Atrial-ventricular (AV) node receives depolarisation from Atria, passes it down Bundle of his, then up Purkinje fibres.
  • Both Ventricles contract, Semilunar valves open , and blood is sent to arteries.
  • Semilunar valves close, Atrioventricular valves open. The heart then rests to allow Atria and Ventricles to refill before the next cycle.

Heart Diagram retrieved 17-7-11 from: https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/display/BIOE414/Introduction

slide8

https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/display/BIOE414/Introduction

Sino- Atrial node depolarises

Contraction of the Atria

Cardiac Cycle

Electrical Events Mechanical Events

Blood is pumped into Ventricles

Depolarisation of Atria

Atrioventricular valve closes

Atrioventricular node depolarises

Ventricles contract

Impulse through Bundle of His

Semilunar valve opens

Blood is pumped into arteries

Impulse through Purkinje fibres

Semilunar valves close

Atrioventricular valves open

&

Depolarisation of ventricles

Empty heart begins to refill