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Nervous System

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  1. Nervous System Clinical Day

  2. generic phrase denoting functional disturbances and/or pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system in excess of one hundred different causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes, medication, infections, autoimmune) Symptoms include tingling, pain or numbness especially in the extremities and muscle weakness Peripheral Neuropathy

  3. Affects about 1% of population Short, recurrent, periodic attacks of motor, sensory, or psychological malfunction Attacks called seizures Initiated by abnormal, synchronous electrical discharges from brain Many causes (brain damage, toxins, metabolic disturbances) Epilepsy

  4. Damaged by compression (tumor, herniated disc, blood clots, penetrating wounds, traumatic events) Can lead to paralysis Monoplegia- one extremity Paraplegia- both lower extremities Quadriplegia- both upper and lower extremities Spinal Cord Injury

  5. Shingles- infection of peripheral nervous systemby herpes zoster virus Pain, skin discoloration, line of skin blisters Poliomyelitis- poliovirus attacks neuron cell bodies Fever, headaches, stiff neck and back, pain and weakness Can cause paralysis Infections

  6. Infection and swelling of the meninges (membrane that surrounds brain and spinal cord) Can be viral or bacterial Meningitis

  7. Spina Bifida Congenital defect of vertebral column in which spinal cord protrudes through unfused vertebrae Can produce paralysis Can be tested prenatally

  8. Afflicts about 11% of population over 65 Deterioration of mind Loss of neurons in specific regions Abnormal plaque deposits Tangled protein filaments in neurons Diagnosis difficult Alzheimer's Disease

  9. Progressive disorder of CNS Usually seen around age 60 Changes in substantia nigra and basal ganglia Too little dopamine produced (neurotransmitter) Too much acetylcholine produced Parkinson's Disease

  10. Progressive destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons in CNS Form scleroses (hardened scars or plaques) Slows conduction Average onset age 33 Progressive loss of function interspersed with remission periods Multiple Sclerosis

  11. neurological disorder characterized by tics -- involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way Onset before the age of 18 Abnormal metabolism of neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are involved Genetically transmitted; parents having a 50% chance of passing gene on to their children Girls with the gene have a 70% chance of displaying symptoms, boys with the gene have a 99% chance of displaying symptoms. Tourette Syndrome

  12. Progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks nerve cells in brain and spinal cord As neurons die, body functions lost (paralysis) Brain usually stays intact Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis "Lou Gehrig's Disease"

  13. Devastating, degenerative brain disorder for which there is, at present, no effective treatment or cure Genetic- autosomal dominant (50% chance to pass to children) Huntington Disease