The Effectiveness of Garlic on Bacterial Growth By Juliana Guarino
Purpose • To test whether garlic and or garlic extract will have an effect on the growth of E. coli. • Its been said that many herbs and spices, garlic specifically, can be used for antibacterial purposes.
Background Information • Garlic was used medicinally dating back to the Neolithic Age • It was used for protection against the Great Plague of London in 1665 and also during World War I • Recent studies confirm that garlic is effective in inhibiting the growth of different bacteria, fungi and viruses
The antibacterial properties are due to the allicin,C6H10OS2, that garlic contains. It stimulates the immune system by increasing the number of white blood cells called lymphocytes. • If crushed or finely chopped, more allicin is produced • If cooked under high temperatures, the effectiveness of the allicin will decrease.
Hypothesis • All forms of garlic used will inhibit bacterial growth • The solution containing fresh, mashed garlic and sterile water will be the most effective in doing so • The solution comprised of cooked, mashed garlic and sterile water will be the least effective
Procedure • 1.0g garlic powder and 10.0mL sterile water were combined and filtered into a small, sterile jar. This was specimen A. • One clove of fresh garlic was mashed to a pulp and combined with 10.0mL sterile water. It was then filtered into a small, sterile jar, creating specimen B. • Two sterile pipettes were used to extract 10.0 mL of organic garlic extract and 10.0mL of sterile water in a small, sterile jar. This was specimen C. • To create specimen D, 50.0mL of tap water was boiled in a beaker on a hot plate. Once boiling, one clove of garlic was put in the water for two minutes. The garlic was then removed and crushed with with 10.0mL sterile water and filtered into a small, sterile jar. • Specimen E consisted of the control, 10.0mL sterile water.
The five jars containing the solutions were then autoclaved to prevent mold growth. • They were poured into five Petri dishes and labeled A-E. • Five blank discs were submerged into each Petri dish. • The bacteria, E. coli, was hydrated and then evenly streaked onto five different agar dishes using sterile technique. • Using sterile tweezers, one blank disc from each solution was added onto each of the five dishes. • The agar dishes were labeled 1-5 and taped shut. They were put in the incubator at 37oC.
Results and Data Zones of Inhibition (mm)
Results and Data This graph shows the zones of inhibition produced from adding different forms of garlic to E.coli Notice that only solution D, cooked garlic, produced zones of inhibition. This suggests that cooked garlic is the only form of garlic that inhibits bacterial growth
Discussion • Factors that could have affected results: • Garlic solutions were not concentrated enough • Autoclaving the solutions could have made the allicin ineffective, similar to cooking. • The garlic not being used immediately could have weakened the allicin • Not enough samples of fresh garlic • Further Studies: • Use other forms of bacteria • Using an alternate heating method such as baking • Test in different temperatures
Discussion • First set of trials produced excessive mold growth, results were inconclusive • To prevent this the solutions were autoclaved the second time
Conclusion • Cooked garlic was the only solution to produce zones of inhibition • Hypothesis was rejected • Results are important to the world because it means that cooked garlic can be used for certain antibacterial purposes.
References • Bacteria. (2010). In JRank Science Encyclopedia . Retrieved from http://science.jrank.org/pages/714/Bacteria.html • Clark, M. (2005-2010). E. coli. Retrieved from http://www.about-ecoli.com/ • Dolby, V. (1999, July). Garlic: Strengthens our immunity, improves infection-fighting ability. MoneyWatch, better nutrition. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_n6_v58/ai_18356463/ • Medham, T. (2003-2008). Garlic central. Retrieved from http://www.garlic-central.com/antibiotic.html • Sterile technique. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.umsl.edu/~microbes/techniques.html • Are there any questions?